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/ 0G> ^-/. ^oiO 









Membra of the Anieiicsn Bnncb 
Cammittee of the Anglkan and 
Eutem Orthodox QnndMs Union 

1018 , / 

Hwwnl IMvBrafty. 
Den^. df SMUrf Elhics. 

CoPTmiOHT, 1913 








Hard Times in Free Greece — ^Let- 
ters Sent Back from America — Steam- 
ship Agents — Turkish Oppression in 
Enslaved Greece 15 


Three Periods of Greek Immigration 
— Early Immigrants (1882-1891) — 
Trials and Tribulations — ^Lost in the 
Maine Woods 25 


The Inrushing Tide — Peculiar Char- 
acteristics 29 


Cigarette Manufacturers — Importers 
— Confectioners and Fruiters — Florists 
— Restaurants — Miscellaneous Shops — 
Bootblacks — Hotel Employees — Theatres 
— Fisheries — Farming — Railroad La- 
borers — Miners, etc. — Mill Hands — 
Agents — ^Autobiography of an Immi- 
grant 82 


Communities — Societies — The Pan- 
Hellenic Union — Newspapers — Books — 
Families — Schools — The Professional 



Class — Students — The Clergy — The 
Diplomatic Service — The Call Home to 
Arms 52 


Independence Day — Picnics — Church 
Feasts and Fasts — The Sunday Liturgy 
— Church Music — Household Eikons — 
Other Rites and Ceremonies — ^Weddings 
— ^Funerals 87 


Little Understood — Account by a 
Greek Priest — Characteristics . . .118 


Chicago: — History of Community — ^A 
Hull House Investigation — Unfair Criti- 
cism — Criminal Record — Labor and Busi- 
ness — School Children — ^A Women's Club 
— Homes and Lodging Places — ^A Capa- 
ble Race 123 


Lowell, Massachusetts : — ^A Polyglot 
City — Rise of the Community — Pigs 
and Hogs — Recreations and Sobriety — 
Strikes — No Paupers — Evening Schools 
— ^A Beautiful Byzantine Church . .138 


Railroad Gangs — ^A Barbarous Riot 
of Americans — St. Louis — Salt Lake 
City— Seattle 161 


Minneapolis and Washington, D. C. — 
Birmingham, Alabama — Scattered Indi- 



viduals — ^A Half -Greek Town — ^A Cele- 
bration and a Speech on Politics . . .169 


A Permanent Migration — Some Sug- 
gestions to Americans 182 


Earliest Greeks in America — Orphans 
of the War of 1821-28— A Famous 
Scholar — ^A Captain and an Admiral of 
the U. S. N. — A Gunner — ^A Navy Chap- 
lain — ^A Famous Mason — A Member of 
Congress — ^A Curator of Cooper Union 
— ^A Harvard Professor — Others . .190 


Hellene of the Hellenes, Benefactor 
of Humanity 208 






I Greeks in America — II Modem 
Greek Language — III Medieval and 
Modern Greece and Greeks — IV The 
Eastern Orthodox Church .... 285 

INDEX 249 


^ Michael Anagnos FrontUpiece 


^ Greek Farm in California 30 

^ Greek Railroad Laborers in the West . . . . 4S 

.Holy Trinity^ Lowell^ Mass 56 

* Track Team, Greek-American Athletic Club, New 
York 60 

^Comicil, Pan-Hellenic Union 66 

^A Wedding Party, Newark, N. J 84 

i^The Greek National Anthem 90 

V Byzantine Musical Notation 106 

Young Greeks' Educational Association, Chicago 124 
In the Slaughter Houses, Somerville, Mass. . .142 

^Interior, Greek Church, Lowell, Mass. . . .158 

''Greek Railroad Construction Gang . . . .162 

V Graduation Day, Greek School, Chicago . . .184 
^Rear Admiral Colvocoresses, U. S. N. . . .196 
^'John C. Zachos, Curator of Cooper Union . . 200 




This book is intended for general readers, as 
well as for students of the immigration problem. 
Its object is to diffuse a sympathetic understand- 
ing of one interesting race of foreigners who 
have come to dwell in our country. There are 
plenty of books, many of them excellent, on the 
subject of immigrants and immigration in gen- 
eral, which are useful as bird's-eye views; but 
with a subject so vast and complex such general 
books cannot possibly treat each individual race 
with due proportion or even accuracy. What is 
needed is that each particular people should be 
studied separately with care, and portrayed sep- 
arately with completeness. This book is an at- 
tempt to do this with the Greeks, a people inter- 
esting and important not only because of their 
history and characteristics, but also because of 
their wide diffusion throughout every state of our 

The method of this book is to try to describe 
the Greeks picturesquely, and as far as possible 
from a Greek standpoint. Its principal sources 
are: first, the Greeks in America, themselves — a 
number of the leading Greek gentlemen in Amer^ 
ica and a number of the rank and file of the immi- 
grants; second, the assistance and criticism of 




several Americans who know the Greeks of Greece 
or of America well ; third, most of the best books 
in English on the subject of modem and medieval 
Greece or parallel subjects, historical, ecclesias- 
tical, and descriptive; — I have eschewed magazine 

I have tried to depict all sides justly. It is 
all too easy to pick to pieces the bad in the char- 
acter of another, be it man or race. Too much 
has already been written and said enlarging on 
Greek vices. Too much do we Americans look 
down on the foreigners among us, little realizing 
that those foreigners are looking down on us at 
the same time. We need most to learn to recog- 
nize the good qualities in the Greeks (and other 
foreigners too) and to give them opportunity 
to develop those good qualities; nor can we ex- 
pect them to become useful citizens until we do 
so learn. 

I have also in preparation and hope to have 
published soon, a companion volume to the pres- 
ent book, giving the historical background of 
the modern Greeks; — a sketch of that long and 
fascinating section of history which is not famil- 
iar to most Americans, but which must be known 
in order to thoroughly appreciate the ideals and 
aspirations of our Hellenic fellow citizens. 

To my dear friend the k.^ Seraphim G. Can- 
outas, LL.B., I owe the first inspiration to 

1 The k, stands for 6 k^/mos (kyrios), the Greek for Mr. 
This is used throughout the book in designating Greeks. 


inTrite and continual assistance and encourage- 
ment throughout the labors of preparation. 
Nearly all the facts contained in Chapters I-V, 
and parts of others, I took down at his dictation 
or translated from his book. Also he has cor- 
rected and criticized most of the manuscript. 
Because of his visits to the Greeks in every state 
of the Union except Arizona and New Mexico, 
he knows the Greeks in America better than any 
other man. I also wish to thank Mrs. Canoutas. 

I acknowledge with gratitude the courtesy, 
encouragement and help of the Hon. Lysimachos 
Kaftantzoglu, Charge d' Affaires of the Royal 
Legation of Greece in Washington; the Hon. 
Constantine Papamichalopoulos, former Minister 
of Education and Religion of Greece, etc., etc., 
now General Manager of the Pan-Hellenic Union 
in America; the k. Sinadinos, and Dr. Vrachnos, 
president, and vice-president of the Union; the 
k. Michal latros; Admiral Colvocoresses, U. S. 
N. ; the k. Theo. B. Ion, former president of the 
Union; the editors of Atlantis, and the proprie- 
tors of "Atlas'' book store. Space does not 
permit me to mention the names of the many 
other Greeks, especially my good friends of the 
Greek Community of Biddeford and Saco, Maine. 

Most of the pictures used to illustrate this 
book were kindly furnished by the k. Canoutas 
and the managing editor of Atlaniis. 

To Professor J. Irving Manatt of Brown Uni- 
versity, scholar and Philhellene, former consul 


at Athens, who first at college taught me to love 
Hellas and the Hellenes, I wish especially to ex- 
press my thanks for advice, valuable material, and 
direction in reading. Also I wish gratefully to 
acknowledge the help of Mr. Franklin B. San- 
bom, last of the Concord sages and Philhellene, 
a close friend of Dr. Howe and Anagnos; of the 
Rt. Rev. Edward M. Parker of New Hampshire, 
Anglican President of the American Branch of 
the Anglican and Eastern Orthodox Churches 
Union; and of the Rev. Thomas J. Lacey of 
Brooklyn. For some of the translations and 
other help I am much indebted to Mr. John Alden 
of Portland and Mr. Ralph W. Brown of Boston. 
Finally let me express my gratitude for the en- 
couragement and assistance of my wife. Those 
whose names are mentioned in the text as writing 
for the book or giving permission to quote, I will 
not thank here by name ; nor is there space to ac- 
knowledge the assistance of many other Ameri- 

Thomas Bub6£ss. 

Trinity Rectory, Saco, Maine. 



To appreciate the Greeks of today it is neces- 
sary, more than with any other race of immigrants 
in America, to know their history. The Greek 
has a continuous history of 3000 or 4000 years; 
for longevity and continuity of race no other 
people save the Hebrew, and even he must yield 
in point of language, is in any way comparable. 
Modem Greek as it is written is as much like 
ancient Greek as modem English is like Chaucer, 
or as the language of Xenophon is like that of 
Homer. The modern Greek Kingdom and the 
modem Greek people are literally steeped in the 
history of their race: it is told the children at 
home ; it is drummed into them at school ; the talk 
of men and newspapers is filled with historical 
allusions, ancient, mediaeval, and modern, and so 
are their customs and very superstitions. Their 
church services breathe of the Fathers and the 
Byzantine Empire; their very language is being 
made more classical by legal enactment. Go into 
a Greek coffee house or shoe shine "parlor'' in 
any of our American cities, and you will prob- 
ably see on the walls rude chromos depicting the 
history of Greece all the way from the age of 

Pericles to the Balkan War of 1912-18: like- 



nesses of Plato, Demosthenes, Alexander the 
Great; sometimes a complete gallery on one 
sheet of the Byzantine Emperors from Constan- 
tine to Constantine, and beside it a picture of the 
present Constantine ; the heroes and events of the 
Greek War of Independence; and various his- 
torical and symbolical representations of the 
course of modem Greece; or, to sum up the age- 
long sweep of Greek history again, perhaps you 
will there see pictures of the Parthenon, the Are- 
opagos, St. Sophia, the University. 

Of ancient Greece every educated American 
knows the history and glory, up to the time of 
St. Paul. For the first three centuries of Chris- 
tianity the growing Church was slowly leavening 
the decadent Hellenic civilization into real 
strength till we find in the time of Constantine the 
Great that the East had become for the most part 
Christian, with a powerful church organization, 
while the West remained for the most part 

The story of the Hellenic race from 330 to 
1453, the Eastern Empire, is one of the grand 
sections of world history which has been most 
shamefully neglected by modern English speak- 
ing scholars — and much of the blame for this 
may be laid to the scathing pen of the brilliant 
and godless Gibbon. As a matter of truth, the 
tale of the much maligned Byzantine Empire, 
which ever remained Greek in its characteristics 
and aspirations, is a history of the center of 


civilization for 1000 years. While the Barbarian 
hordes of the West, which had swept away the 
ancient civilization of old Rome and were bound 
together only by the rising power of the papacy, 
were squabbling for existence, the mighty empire 
of New Rome preserved culture and civilization 
and the Christian faith intact,' and for ten cen- 
turies — ^longer than any other dynasty — ^beat 
back Goth, Hun, Vandal, Slav, Persian, Saracen, 
Bulgar, Magyar, Seljouk and Ottoman Turk. 
She, the bulwark of Europe, stood ever bravely 
on the defensive, and through the shifting shocks 
of a thousand years saved Europe till Europe was 
strong enough to save herself. Toward the end 
she was ruined by the traitor stroke of the Latin 
barbarians of the Fourth Crusade. Three cen- 
turies more she struggled on, and died fighting, 
and St. Sophia, greatest of Christian churches, 
became a mosque as it is this day. Then she 
handed on to youthful Europe the culture she had 
preserved and the Renaissance came into being, 
Hellenic in its foundations. The cause of the 
longevity of the Eastern Empire, slurs to the con- 
trary notwithstanding, was its superior morality, 
and the motive power of the Empire was the Or- 
thodox Church. 

All these are big assertions, I realize, but they 
are absolutely true to history. This neglected 
section of history should be given much greater 
attention in our colleges. The history of the 
Middle Ages is far more than a mere history of 



the rise of the papacy as is so often taught. 
The Dark Ages of the East — ^and the East means 
in fundamentals Christian Hellenism — did not be- 
gin till 1453. Unless we appreciate all this, we 
cannot appreciate the proud claims of the modern 
Greek, nor understand the Eastern Orthodox 
Church. Moreover the modem Greek, scholars 
of today agree without hesitation, is the direct 
descendant of his ancestor, the ancient Greek, 
though with a tinge of alien blood. Whatever 
races in the course of the centuries conquered the 
Greeks or colonized their lands, if they remained, 
inevitably became Hellenized and assimilated. 

For the next four centuries after the fall of 
Constantinople, the Greek was ground down with 
worse than slavery by the unspeakable Turk. 
'Tis a bitter tale of continuous misrule, grinding 
taxation, indignities, atrocities, massacres, and, 
bitterest of all, the conscription of little children 
to be brought up Mohammedans and serve in the 
armies of the Sultan. It was the Greek Church 
that kept alive the spark of patriotism and edu- 
cation, and the modem Greek has never forgotten 
his incalculable debt to his Church. Through 
these Dark Ages, heroic bands of Greek men 
known as the Klephts, ensconced in their moun- 
tain fastnesses, kept their semi-independence. 
The daring deeds of these bands form the subject 
of much of the folklore, the Klephtic ballads, 
known by heart and loved by all modem Greeks. 
At the end of the Dark Ages, it was the weaken- 


ing of the Ottoman power, the higher education of 
Greeks in foreign lands, and the echoes of the 
French Revolution and of our own American 
Revolution which finally fanned the dulled em- 
bers of bitter longing for freedom to a flame. 

In k821 on the 26th of March (old style calen- 
dar) Archbishop Germanos of Patras raised the 
banner of the Cross, and the enslaved Greeks 
flocked to arms. The tyrant Sultan responded 
with a terrible massacre of thousands of Christian 
Greeks, hanging the venerable Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. But in three months the Turk was 
driven out of the Peloponnesus and a provisional 
government established. Soon the world was 
shocked with the news of the massacre of Chios 
(or Scio), unparalleled in modern history, where 
of the 100,000 inhabitants, cultured, prosperous, 
happy, hitherto favored by the Sultan, only 5000 
were left alive on the island by Turkish barbarity. 
Then it was that Eanares and the Greek fleet 
swept clear the seas, and everywhere were re- 
corded brilliant deeds of Greek valor. In the 
first three years of the seven years' struggle it 
seemed as if Greece had won. But the weakened 
Sultan called in the aid of his ruthless Egyptian 
vassal, Ibrahim Pasha, and the cloud of hopeless 
atrocity settled down again. IbraJiim's hordes 
swept over the Peloponnesus, leaving in their 
train only mangled corpses and charred ruins, 
and the Ottoman slave markets were filled with 
Greek mothers and children. On the other side 


of the Gulf of Corinth the siege of Mesolonghi 
stands out as one of the most heroic defences in 
history. At its end a few cut their way out, 
and the rest, forced back, blew themselves up in 
the powder magazine. Finally, in 18S8, after the 
fall of Athens, the combined fleet of the Powers, 
who were able to withstand the universal outcry 
no longer, destroyed the fleet of Ibrahim in the 
harbor of Navarino, and the war was over. 

Many a foreign Philhellene fought and min- 
istered to the destitute on the Greek side in the 
war, most famous among whom was the poet Lord 
Byron, who died soon after his arrival in Greece, 
and bis heart was buried in the church at Meso- 
longhi beside the hero Marko Botzaris. Ameri- 
cans "«iay now have forgotten, but the Greeks 
have not, the messages and speeches to Congress 
of President Monroe, Daniel Webster, Henry 
Clay, and the heroic deeds of American Philhel- 
lenes, chiefest of whom stands Bostonian Dr. 
Samuel Gridley Howe, "the Lafayette of the 
Greek Revolution," whose services to Greece were 
greater than even those of Lord Byron. After the 
war another American rendered inestimable service 
to Greece, that second foreign missionary of our 
American Episcopal Church, the Rev. Dr. John 
Henry Hill. This unassuming American priest 
established the first schools in Athens for both 
sexes, and supported by his faithful wife, for 
fifty years (till their death) labored in Athens, 
giving the start and model to all the girls' schools 


of Greece, never proselytizing, honored and up- 
held by all Greeks, government, church, and peo- 
ple. The modem Greeks have always looked 
with veneration and gratitude upon our United 
States of America. , 

Greece became free ii^ 18S8y-a land utterly 
despoiled by the ravages df-^e terrible Ibrahim. 
But the benign Powers of Europe allowed her only 
one-third of the territory fought for and one- 
fifth of the Greek people who had struggled for 
liber,ty; sent her the tactless boy king, Otho, who 
for forty years retarded the kingdom's progress ; 
loaded her with a hopeless debt; and have ever 
since treated her with a like selfishness of diplo- 
matic coquetry,- — ^yes, until the year of grace 
1913. At last Greece and the other brave little 
Balkan kingdoms have shown the Powers that they 
would stand their concert of tyranny no longer. 

Not until 1863, with King George's accession, 
did real constitutional freedom and real progress 
begin in Greece. Since then remarkable strides 
have been made despite the endless turmoil of 
politicians and the constant changes in the min- 
istry. This handicap, though characteristic of 
the Greeks, ancient and modem, has been largely 
the result of the narrowed confines* of the King- 
dom, where every Greek, whether he live in Greece 
or Turkey or Asia or elsewhere, has the full priv- 
ileges of citizenship and the right of free educa- 
tion at the University of Athens. Thus it came 
about that the political professions were almost 


ridiculously overstocked, and Athens has more 
newspapers than New York. The little Kingdom 
up to the present year comprised in the north 
but a part of Thessaly and a scrap of Epiros, and 
also but a part of the iEgean archipelago. In 
the remainder of what should have been Greece 
the dark ages of Turkish misrule and barbarity 
have lasted on until the Balkan War of victory. 
To devoted Crete, after seven revolutions and hor- 
rible massacres of Christians, the Christian 
Powers — ^when they could help themselves no 
longer — in 1898 finally allowed autonomy but not 

In our judgment of the modem Greek we must 
never fail to take into account these tremendous 
handicaps he has had to face, chiefest among 
which has been the abominable lack of sympathy 
and support from Christian Europe. Until the 
Balkan War of victory, Greece has become known 
to English readers largely through the prejudice 
of English writers. 

Athens of to-day represents the very acme of 
civic pride. It is a beautiful modem city. Its 
nearest approach to slums are of white marble. 
The city is remarkably free from beggars, crim- 
inal class, rowdyism, drunkenness, and, I think 
it is true to say, freer than any city of Europe 
or America from allurements to sexual vice. Her 
educational and philanthropic institutions are 
most praiseworthy. She has- been the center of 
Greek culture for three generations, and she has 


also been the generous asylum for refugees from 
Moslem barbarity. 

As in every one of the past twenty-five cen- 
turies the Greeks have been the most intelligent 
and best instructed race of southeastern Europe, 
so modern Greece has not neglected the education 
of her children. Ever since 1837 Greece has had 
her gradwally improving public school system, 
free to all Greeks from the Deme School, on 
through the Hellenic School, the Gymnasium, and 
the University. Let us note that the Bible, the 
Catechism, and Church History is always a prom- 
inent and required part of the curriculum. In 
enslaved Greece and elsewhere much educational 
and philanthropic work has been carried on 
through Greek benevolence. 

The independent or autocephalous Church of 
Greece, like the Church of Russia and the other 
national Eastern Orthodox Churches, is headed 
by a Holy Synod, whose president is the Metro- 
politan Archbishop of Athens. There are many 
well educated Greek bishops and priests and 
deacons, but the education of the country parish 
clergy has been sadly neglected, although this 
condition is being bettered. Unhappily, also, the 
young men of the best families rarely study for 
the ministry. Epiros, Macedonia, the northern 
and eastern islands and littoral of the Mgeem 
Sea, in which the large majority of the popula- 
tion are Greek, have been under the jurisdiction 
of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who since 


1453 has been invested with his authority and 
deposed at will by the Mohammedan Sultan. 

The population of the little curtailed Kingdom 
before 1913 was in round numbers 2,500,000. In 
what was and in what still is Turkish dominions 
and elsewhere there are some 10,000,000 more 

Outside of Athens, Greece is made up for the 
most part of villages scattered throughout the 
jagged mountains and countless inlets and the 
islands. Nearly everyone lives in his own house. 
About 70 per cent are engaged in agricultural, 
pastoral, and other "unskilled" pursuits. Every 
town and hamlet has its church or churches, and 
many a mountain top its saint's chapel and some- 
times its monastery. Practically all Greeks are 
Eastern Orthodox, and the Roman propaganda 
and Protestant proselytism has made scarcely 
any impression. The Greeks love their Church, 
and love to celebrate her festivals, and the parish 
priest is a man of much influence in his village. 
In fact patriotism and Orthodoxy are insepar- 
ably bound together in the heart of the Greek — 
the former, I fear, having the great emphasis. 

Wealthy Greeks the world over have vied with 
each other to embellish their fatherland and pro- 
vide for the education and relief of their compa- 
triots at home, and the poorer Greeks, banded 
into societies all over America and elsewhere, are 
continually sending home contributions. 

Wealthy Greek mercantile houses, chief among 


which are the famous Rail! Brothers, are found 
in every commercial center of the world, includ- 
ing America. Greeks have long constituted the 
majority of the professional and foreign diplo- 
matic classes of the Turkish Empire. Greek 
scholars have occupied a number of chairs in the 
universities of Europe and also a few in America, 
as Professor Sophocles of Harvard. And finally, 
Greek wanderers from all classes may be found, 
Odysseus-like, in every nook and cranny of the 

Such is the briefest sort of an account of the 
history of the Greeks and of what they are to- 
day. We would strongly urge the reader to fill 
out this outline by more extended reading, as a 
guide to which we have appended a carefully 
selected bibliography at the end of the book. 
One cannot rightly appreciate or sympathize with 
the Greeks in America without a real knowledge 
of their fascinating history and of their early life 
among the mountains and shores and islands of 
fair Hellas, to which they look back with love and 


Thirty years ago there were scarcely any 
Greeks in these United States. At the present 
time they number over a quarter of a million, 
scattered throughout the length and breadth of 
our country, an important, intelligent, and little 
appreciated part of our population. Let us be- 
gin bur tale of these scions of Ancient and Me- 
diaeval Hellas, and citizens, former or present, of 
the brave little modem Kingdom, by relating 
when and why they came. 

Before this period of Greek immigration 

proper to America the Greek emigrant had 

sought as the haven of his wanderlust Roumania, 

Bulgaria, Russia, England, and elsewhere over 

the nearer parts of the world. It was the islander 

who started the first flow of emigration, and 

later the peasant of the mountain districts of 

the mainland. As yet, however, America was 

out of the range of his thinking, save only as a 

sort of fabled Atlantis, far out beyond the 

straits of Gibraltar. No peasant ever thought 

of it as a place where he could go and live and 

earn money. It was not till about thirty years 

ago — ^we know not what started the first — ^that 

the stream of emigrants proper began to flow 






[westward from Hellas to our shores. Three dis- 
tinct periods there have been: the first ten years, 
beginning forty years ago, they came by tens ; the 
next ten years, by hundreds ; and the last twenty, 
by ever increasing thousands. The table of 
statistics shows graphically what has occurred.-^ 

1 From "Annual Reports" of the Commissioner General 
of Immigration. These figures cannot be absfdutely ac- 
curate: for diseased or otherwise ineligible immigrants 
often get through somehow; some enter by way of Canada; 
many are listed on paper as sailors and ostensibly desert 
when they reach America; also Greeks from enslaved Hel- 
las may be recorded as of another race. 

In 1848 there arrived in New York 91,061 Irish, 61,973 
Germans and one Greek. In 1858 there were 2 Greeks 
among the immigrants. From 1847 to 1864 the total num- 
ber of Greeks entering this port was 77. 











































































36580 - 




























Up to 1891 the causes of emigration require 
little explanation. It was the usual way in which 
any migratory people tend toward a promising 
country. The few that came before the 80's 
wrote home to their relatives and friends of the 
fine openings in America, and the relatives and 
friends came in gradually growing numbers. 

In 1891, as the statistics show, a great change 
begins. The cause which started this sudden in- 
crease of emigration, and still affects it in a less 
degree, was the industrial depression, or rather 
stagnation, brought about in part from the 
lack of diversified industry and from the ever 
shifting changes in the government, and brought 
to a crisis at the time by the failure of 
the all important currant industry. With hard 
times at home, the Greek came because he 
could get more money in America" ; ^ and when 
once started he kept on coming. From that time 
on to its present magnitude the matter has been 
exploited by the exaggerated reports- sent home 
of the land of marvels, and by the steamship 

The extra column on the right gives the numbers of aU 
Greeks from lynth ^nslavpH and free Greece. The other 
columns are those from the kingdom of Greece only. Thus 
may be seen the growth of emigration from enslaved Greece. 

2 An accurate and excellent account of the causes of 
Greek emigration, though it touches that from free Greece 
only, is given in "Greek Immigration to the United States" 
by H. P. Fairchild, Chap. IV. With Prof. Fairchild's per- 
mission I have used a little of his material in the remainder 
of this chapter. See Bibliography, however, for a criticism 
of the rest of this book. 

- • IJ ' 'A 

• . 4 

: •-■ ■ 1 . 

Holy Trinity, Lowell, Mi 


agents who soon became ubiquitous and unscrupu- 
lous. It were well to remark that from the king- 
y^ dom of Greece neither religious oppression nor 
government oppression were ever factors forcing 
emigration for freedom's sake, as has been the 
case in some other lands. This is simply be- 
cause Greeks are above all else Orthodox and 
patriots, and such oppressions are unknown in 
the Kingdom. Nor have social inequality or 
class hatred ever been motives for emigration to 
the democratic Greek ; nor has overpopulation. 
i.The cause was economic. 

Let US' add another reason, and that a truly 
noble one, for the poverty of the country, — an 
expenditure amounting to many millions. I mean 
the never neglected obligation of the little King- 
dom to aid her enslaved and persecuted children 
in Crete, the Islands, Macedonia, Epiros, Thrace, 
etc. The massacres, revolutions, and consequent 
care of thousands of exiles, and the Greek 
schools and philanthropic institutions supported 
in enslaved Greece — ^to cope with all these Free 
Greece has been obliged to borrow much money. 
Thus it came about that some twenty years ago, 
eagerly catching at the reports of their few fel- 
low-countrymen already in America, the poverty- 
stricken peasants left home for this new land of 
promise. The Transvaal was tried for a while, 
but with little success. The drop in currants 
struck the mountain districts of the Peloponnesus 
the hardest, and it was there that this induced 

Holy Trinity, Lowell, Mi 


stage of emigration began. Soon glowing re- 
ports from these first came back and then the 
rumor spread out and out. After some time the 
fever jumped to central Greece ; and of late years 
it has spread up into the districts of Enslaved 
Hellas : Epiros, Thessaly, Macedonia, Thrace, the 
Islands, and on over the ^Egean to Smyrna and 
the surrounding Greek inhabitants of Turkey in 
Asia. Look again at the table of statistics and 
see this growth to its present amazing propor- 
tions. "Once started, this movement, like the fa- 
miliar chain letter, could not be checked, but 
grew by its own multiplication. Each Greek in 
America became the nucleus of a rapidly increas- 
ing group of his kin and neighbors." 

In the 90's came a notable fall in exchange. 
$100 sent home from America became 900 francs, 
which was to the peasant a small fortune. The 
recent rise in exchange could not check the tide 
of emigration. $100 is now worth only 600 

In the late 90's more and more reported cases 
of prosperity in America made the poor Greek 
farmer open his eyes. "He who was our poor 
neighbor has now become rich and a great and 
honored man; let us go too. Distinguished suc- 
cess is certain in America.'' But no one in 
Greece really knew, nor do they know npw, the 
conditions as they actually are in America. All 
are doomed to bitter disillusionment, when they 
find here hard, inevitable toil, the like of which 


they never dreamed of at home. In the father- 
land they never consulted a clock as to what time 
to get out of bed; there they did not work in 
I bad weather, but only when they pleased; no 
I hoarse factory whistle summoned their immediate 
- obedience; no boss called them to time. It is 
^ because in Greece no one is ever obliged to be on 
time that we find that the Greeks we meet here 
have as a rule no conception of punctuality. 
Nor did they expect the wretched tenements in 
which, in order to pay their debts and support 
the family left at home in the pure air of the 
hills of Hellas, crowds of men are obliged to herd. 
Nor could they foresee the danger, the disease, 
the ever ready pitfalls of temptation, the exploita- 
tion by vagabond compatriots or unscrupulous 
Americans. But once here, shame and lack of 
money prevents tlie return home and they have to 
buckle down to hardest work, often amid the 
dregs of mankind and regarded themselves as such 
(by Americans. Shame, too, prevents their writ- 
' ing to the friends at home the truth. So they 
are prone to enlarge on their situation, and back 
go highly colored reports of salary, position, and 
glowing prospects of success. For example, a 
waiter in a hotel sends a photograph of himself, 
seated in an automobile, wearing a heavy watch 
chain and a big, cheap ring. They think he is 
rich. His two cousins take the next boat for 
New York. Clippings from the Greek newspa- 
pers in America are enclosed to relatives, contain- 


ing accounts of weddings, baptisms, contributions 
for some patriotic purpose by a Greek society, 
and the like. These are read in the villages and 
do much to incite emigration. That the wedding 
of a poor peasant should figure in a newspaper 
and be so brilliant a social event, under such fine 
auspices — such a report of a peasant's wedding 
would never have been published in a newspaper 
in Greece! Then there are translated and sent 
home items from the American papers themselves 
of the excellence of Greek confectioners' and flor- 
ists' establishments! And here is the news that 
^^dropoulos, the poor shepherd who was nothing 
in his native village, has attained the exalted rank 
of. President of the Society of the Arcadians in 
the world-famed metropolis of Chicago! Is it 
any wonder that the Greek peasants look on the 
' United States as a land of ease and glory? Even 
if they are told the truth of the grinding work 
and hardships, they will not beKeve it— for do 
they not hear from all sides that it is otherwise? 
A great deal of these glowing accounts was 
and is the work of the ubiquitou s steamship 
agent. He looms large as a factor in the ex- 
ploitation of Greek emigration. 

"Given the stimulus and the goal^ all that remained 
to be provided was the means of migration — ^the ma- 
terial means of conveyance and the financial means to 
defray the expenses. Both of these were promptly 
forthcoming; steamship agents are never slow to seize 
opportmiities such as existed in Greece at the time in 



question^ and all the principal Mediterranean steam- 
ship lines established agencies in the Pirseus^ Patras 
and other ports^ as well as in most of the important 
interior cities and villages. Emigration agents began 
to scour the comitry^ exciting the imagination of the 
peasants as to the glories and opportmiities in Amer- 
ica^ clearing away the di£Sculties which seemed to be- 
set the passage^ and in many cases advancing the 
money for the trip. In other cases^ if the prospective 
emigrant could not get together sufficient money at 
home^ it was furnished him by some friend or relative 
in America. Just how large a part in this movement 
has been played by emigration agents^ legally and 
illegally^ it would be impossible to say. In matters of 
this kind the Greek is extremely deep and crafty^ 
and it would be the work of months^ perhaps of years^ 
for a skilled detective actually to make out a case 
against the Greek emigration agents. . . . One of the 
first things that attracts the eye of the traveler land- 
ing in the Pirseus is the amazing number of American 
flags flying from office buildings all along the water 
front and the neighboring streets; their significance is 
somewhat perplexing until he learns that they are 
steamship offices or emigration agencies — for there is 
no great distinction between the two." * 

The money thus furnished is generally secured 
by mortgages on the property of the emigrant. 
Almost every important Atlantic steamship com- 
pany has an agency or connection in at least one 
of the Greek ports. 

For the past five or six years facilities have 

3 Fairchild, pp. 79-80. 


been greatly enhanced by the introduction of two 
regular Greek steamship lines. Now the emi- 
grant may have complete Greek surroundings on 
shipboard and so feel at home, whereas before 
there was much reluctance towards the strange- 
ness of traveling in a foreign boat. Moreover, 
while it used to take much longer (from twenty to 
forty days by embarking at the ports of Genoa, 
Marseilles, Havre, or elsewhere, with all the 
dread of changing boats), now the voyage can 
be made in fifteen days. 

One other phase of emigration needs to have 
special mention. After the peasants had been 
flocking to our shores for a time and sending back 
their wondrous reports, the better class of Greek 
citizens began to take notice. "If the poorly 
qualified peasant," t^ese argued to themselves, 
**can become so prosperous in America, how much 
greater are the prospects for men of education 
and enlightenment." And so this new and latest 
phase has been before us in ever increasing num- 
bers for the past ten years or so. The fallacy in 
the expectation^ of this class and how they are 
really less desirable immigrants to our country 
than the peasants will be discussed later. 

When we turn to enslaved Greece we find that 
the primary causes of emigration there were 
quite different from those in the case of the free 
Kingdom. Of the wholesale emigration of Greeks 
from the Turkish Empire in the last five or ten 
years, the main cause, if not the only one, has 


been the political anomaly of Turkey bringing 
destitution and danger upon the Christians and 
especially the Greeks. After tihe Constitution 
was declared they fared worse than before. All 
sorts of persecutions became of daily occurrence, 
and murder was not infrequent. Among the as- 
sassinations that have taken place in the past 
few years before the Balkan war, were those of 
two bishops, several priests, and many other 
prominent Greeks. Compulsory service of the 
Greek young men in the Turkish army, where 
neither their religion nor their morality was safe- 
guarded, also drove many to leave the land of 
oppression and take ship for the ^4and of the 



We have traced the causes and growth of emi- 
gration as it came about in Greece, let us now go 
back and see what hap}>ened to the emigrant after 
he reached the promised land. First we will look 
at those early immigrants of the 80's and before. 
They came, as we have stated, in these periods 
first by tens, then by hundreds. Nearly all of 
these were natives of the mountain regions of the 
Peloponnesus, poorly educated farmers and 
shepherds. New York was their first settling 
place, then later Chicago, Boston, and a few other 
large cities. 

It was a tale of hardship and adventure. Some 

one of the first in New York struck upon the 

happy scheme of buying a little candy, and with 

a tray hung about his neck he wandered the streets 

of the great city and eked out a meagre living by 

selling to passersby. The other Greeks as they 

landed in America followed his example; and by 

1882 we find over a hundred Greeks peddling 

candy, fruit, and flowers. This was the start of 

that business of catering to these minor wants of 

us Americans for which in later years the Greek 

haa become so well known. 




After the tray peddler had learned a few Eng^ 
lish words and saved a bit of money, he got him a 
push cart and established his trade at some street 
comer. This was before the days of strict ped- 
dler licensing. After some time, when he had ac- 
cumulated a little capital, he set up a candy, 
flower, or fruit store. It was about 1885 that the 
first Greek shop, that of a florist, was established 
on Columbus Avenue in New York. (Perhaps a 
Boston shop antedated this?) Such was prob- 
ably the evolution of the individual cases, and 
those who found their way to Chicago or Boston 
did likewise. They lived somewhere and somehow 
in poor tenements, several clubbing together to 
rent a room. 

In the year 1885 one of them had the initiative 
to establish a Greek restaurant in the lower East- 
side of New York, on Roosevelt Street. It was a 
poor, forlorn affair; yet to the lonely immigrant 
it meant comradeship and a breath of home. 
This the peddlers made their rendezvous. Here 
they found the cooking and manners of home, and 
here they could discuss their own present interests 
and the affairs of the fatherland. 

These were years of struggle, filled with many a 
hardship and adventure for these poor men, placed 
amid a language and people and customs and life 
utterly strange. Sometimes a peddler would be 
set upon by street gamins or older roughs, his 
tray or cart upset and all his wares stolen. These 


and other things scared them. Oftentimes the 
Greeks were cheated by unscrupulous merchants 
or employers ; and the self -termed "agents," men 
of their own people or of other foreign nationali- 
ties, exploited them shamefully. Many must be 
the forlorn and thrilling stories of the trials of 
these first immigrants if they should be told. 

Here is one romantic incident of these early 
days. In the year 1888 a company of 150 im- 
migrants had just landed in New York. The rep- 
resentatives of a Greek and Italian labor agency 
found them wandering about the streets and en- 
gaged them for the job of constructing a railroad 
way up in eastern Quebec. So off they were 
shipped, the whole bunch of them, to Canada. 
After working just one week the concern failed, 
and the Greeks were stranded. There they were 
in a wild region of a strange land, without money 
or food or a knowledge of a word of the language 
of the country, and without a guide to show them 
the way back. How they did it no one can tell; 
but sticking together, they struck off south 
through the deep woods, and after many days of 
untold suffering, living on berri^ or whatever else 
they could find in the forest, they at last came 
upon a clearing which was a village in Maine. 
The good people there, led by the ministers of 
the place, treated them with the utmost kindness 
and hospitality, and, all contributing, paid their 
fares to Boston, where they found a colony of their 
own people. 


By the end of this preliminary epoch, the year 
1890, we find a few thousand Greeks scattered 
about in the largest cities. 




In the last chapter we were dealing with mere 
beginnings ; we come now to growth. As we have 
seen by the table, from 1891 to the present has 
been the period of immigration proper, increasing 
in volume by leaps and bounds. We are now go- 
ing to try to describe what has happened to all 
these Greeks. If the story seem confused and il- 
logical in sequence, we crave the reader's indul- 
gence, for there are so many and so differing de- 
velopments that it is difficult to find a logical order. 
We shall trace the developments in two chapters 
under the heads of Industrial and Institutional 
Development; although as a matter of fact the 
subheadings may not always fit these titles. Each 
development or phase will be treated separately: 
as the candyshop, the bootblacks, the hotel em- 
ployees, the factory workers, the western railroad 
laborers, etc.; and the Orthodox community, the 
societies, the newspaper, the family, the school. 

To view the whole composite picture in its right 

perspective, the reader must bear in mind that 

many of the developments were simultaneous. 


-. f'\ 


The flood of immigration poured in through the 
few ports, at first a small flow, then rapidly in- 
creasing in volume; and it spread itself out in 
streams, first small, then large, all over the coun- 
try. Moreover, in each locality the streams came 
to rest in various channels, similar to those of 
other localities, as each immigrant sought to earn 
his living. (This is the Industrial Development.) 
Also the channels combined in similar ways, as the 
institutions of intercourse and fellowship arose in 
the various centers. (This is the Institutional 
Development.) So it went on till now we find in 
most of the large cities, and many of the smaller 
ones, colonies of Greeks ranging from 100 to ^0,- 
000 or even more. Also — ^and this seems a broad 
statement, but it is true — ^in practically every city 
• or town of any appreciable size in the United 
States there are now to be found at least one or 
two Greeks. Probably there is no one of the more 
recent races of immigrants some of which total 
many more than the Greeks, which is so universally 
disseminated in every part of our country. 

Some particular characteristics hold for prac- 
tically all these Greeks, which we need to keep in 
mind throughout. They are patriots, loving 
their native land, and with a keen knowledge of its 
past as well as present political events. They are 
members of the Holy Orthodox Eastern Church, 
for Greece and the Church are inseparable. They 
nearly all have had more or less schooling, some 
a great deal, — 90 per cent, surely, can read their 


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IMMIGRATION 1891 TO 1913 31 

Greek newspapers. They are extremely clannish. 
Finally most of them have the typical Greek 
genius for adaptability and versatility in busi- 

Accordingly, with these general facts in mind 
of continuous and rapid increase, of widespread 
dissemination, and of typical characteristics, let 
us now proceed to consider separately the partic- 
ular industries and institutions. 


By Industrial development we mean simply an 
account of the various ways in which the immi- 
grants have earned money. With the newcomer, 
in the majority of cases the money earned must go 
for paying back what he borrowed to buy his pas- 
sage over, for the support of the family left be- 
hind in Greece — this Is a most sacred duty to 
every Greek — and incidentally for the support of 
himself. All this means hard work and hard liv- 
ing conditions. It is the ambition of most Greeks, 
whatever menial employment they have been 
obliged to start with, to set up for themselves in 
independent business. Many have attained this 
ambition, and shown remarkable aptitude, some be- 
coming rich; and also, reports to the contrary 
notwithstanding, most of them show business 
honesty, better at any rate than that of some of 
the Americans with whom they have to deal. 

We choose to mention first the cigarette manu- 
facturers and the importing houses, not because 
they are the chief occupations in point of numbers 
(rather they are the least), but because the best 
examples of them are typical of the acme of the 
immigrant's success. Remember, we are treating 

here only of the immigrant, the peasant class in 



the main. The directors of great Greek mercan- 
tile houses in America, mentioned in a later chap- 
ter, are not immigrants, but of that band of finan- 
ciers from the upper stratum of Hellenes famous 
long before the period of immigration. 


Just before the Spanish War two Greek 
brothers by the name of Stephanos, peasants from 
Epiros, started this business on a capital of $35. 
They began by buying a few pounds of tobacco 
and rolling cigarettes. During the Spanish War 
they sent, as presents to the officers of the United 
States army, boxes of their cigarettes. This 
happy advertizing expedient set the ball rolling, 
and in ten years they were millionaires. Now 
they own one of the largest cigarette factories in 
the country, in which they employ some hundred 
of their fellow-countrymen. This is on Walnut 
Street, Philadelphia. As smoking Americans 
know, the Stephanos cigarettes are sold all over 
the , country and are of a high grade. The first 
cigarettes made by Greeks in this country were 
those of one Anargyros, who began in New York 
nearly twenty-five years ago. Ten years back he 
sold out to the American Tobacco Company and 
returned to Greece a rich man. These are the 
familiar "Turkish Trophies" with the name "An- 
argyros" stamped on every box. M. Melachrinos 
& Company, 214 West 47th Street, New York, has 
a big establishment, the product of which is 


widely sold. There in five years a fortune, was 
made. Let these serve as examples ; there are sev- 
eral smaller concerns of equal rank in this line 
doing a large business. 


About 1896 the Greeks, who were by that time 
settled by hundreds in New York and Chicago, 
felt the need of bringing the produce of Greece 
to this country, not only for their own consump- 
tion and that of other Oriental peoples, but also 
for the American market. The first importing 
house to be established was that of Lekas & 
Drivas, at 17 Roosevelt Street, New York, the 
identical place where ten years before was started 
that little restaurant, the first rendezvous of the 
early immigrant. This firm succeeded well, and 
little by little their business grew until now they 
distribute all over the United States. Others fol- 
lowed their example, first in New York and later 
in Chicago and Boston. Lately the importations 
from Greece reached i;he amount of $3,000,000 
in one year. These imports are black olives, olive 
oil, Greek cheese, wine, liqueurs, dried fish, sar- 
dines, figs, etc., etc. Tobacco from Greece and 
Turkey is also imported. Currants, that chief of 
Greek exports, are imported by a special agency 
of a Patras Company in New York. 


These are the most widespread and generally 
successful ventures of the Greeks. We speak of 


them together because the two commoclitles, candy 
and fruit, are often the stock of the same store, 
along with the inevitable ice cream and soda-water 
attachments. We have considered above the evo- 
lution of the candy, fruit, and flower store from 
the little tray of the first immigrant.^ The sec- 
ond or push-cart stage is still to be seen. At the 
present time, so rapid has been the growth that 
there is actually not a city or town of any size in 
the country without at least one Greek confec- 
tioner or fruiterer, running from a cheap, though 
almost always clean, place to the very height of 
perfection in the trade, and of these last not a 
few. In New York there are about 160. But 
Chicago is the shining beacon of this industry, 
where are over 400 confectionery establishments, 
many of the highest class — almost a monopoly of 
the trade there. It is in the rapid rise in this 
business especially that the Greek immigrant has 
gained the greatest prominence before the busi- 
ness world. Such progress is certainly worthy of 
high commendation. There are also some very 

1 The first Greek in America who started in the candy 
business was a sailor in New York, a native of Smyrna, 
about forty years ago, before the tide of emigration set 
westward. His name was Hadzi or Hadzikiris. From a 
peddler he became a great manufacturer of candy. Among 
other brands he put out the well known "Rabat" (a Turkish 
name — ^Turks, but not Greeks, are very fond of sweets). 
He organized a corporation under the name of "Greek- 
American Confectionery Company," or "The Novelty Candy 
Company." Some years ago he sold out to his American 
partner and returned to Smyrna, an old man. 



su'ccessful wholesale establishments in Chicago, 
New York, Boston, and the southern states. (If 
the reader of this paragraph wishes to see for 
himself what a Greek candy store and its pro- 
prietor look like, he can find one within five or ten 
minutes walk from where he is sitting; i. e. if he 
is anywhere near a sizable collection of shops. 
Try it, gentk reader, and see if this assertion be 
true.) The Greeks have been of immense benefit 
in encouraging our Pacific coast fruit industry by 
bringing it everywhere in the eastern states in 
contact with the consumers. 


The 150 Greek florists of New York City fur- 
nish a remarkable spectacle of Greek enterprise. 
They are first class places, and form a kind of 
monopoly. It is through them that the Annual 
Greek Ball in New York is marvelous in floral 
decorations. And twenty years ago these same 
florists were carrying their whole ephemeral 
stock hung about their necks. There are fifteen 
or twenty florist establishments in Chicago, and 
some in Philadelphia and Minneapolis, but very 
few anywhere else. Mayor Gaynor of New York, 
on his daily walk to City Hall, gets his bouton- 
niere from a Greek flower girl's stand. 


Beside catering to the sweet tooth of our coun- 
trymen, and especially our countrywomen and 


children — ^which tooth astonishes the Greek — 
Greeks have in many places found lucrative the 
catering to the American stomach, particularly 
by the chop house or third rate restaurant. In 
Chicago there are 600 to 800 of these, some of 
high class. In New York are about 200, most 
of which are the third class variety — ^7th Avenue 
is lined with them. Probably the only really 
"second class'* Greek restaurant in New York is 


that on 42nd Street, which everyone sees and 
many patronize when they come out of the Grand 
Central Depot. It is that of the Hotel Athens. 
This property, land and building, was bought four 
years ago by the proprietors, Ringas and Poly- 
mero, who are among the richest of the Greeks 
in America. Fifteen years ago they were poor 
lunch room men. The restaurant business has 
spread much of late years, especially in the south- 
ern states where, commercial travelers testify, the 
Greeks have, by their clean and well run places, 
relieved a well-nigh unbearable condition of gas- 
tronomic malprovidence. All these do not include 
the Greek restaurant proper, where the Greeks 
themselves go and eat Greek food. These are 
found in every good-sized Greek colony. In ev- 
ery colony also is found that institution peculiar 
to Greek and other Oriental life, the coffee house,^ 
which is to the Greek the social club, reading room, 

2 The coffee hcnises of England are really Greek in or- 
igin. The first was introduced at Baliol in 1659 by one 
KonopioSy a Cretan. 


etc. A description of these last belong rather to 
the later chapters on Greek life and will be treated 
there, as do the various other shops that have been 
established in concentrated Greek quarters, and 
exist exclusively for the Greeks. 


To be complete we must mention that the 
Greeks, like other people, have taken up in 
America the other, ordinary lines of trade for 
American customers as well as Greek — ^as grocers, 
barbers, tailors, furriers, cobblers and others. 


The bootblack stands or, to put it more gen- 
teelly, the "Shoe Shine Parlors,*' operated by 
Greeks are now almost as familiar a sight all 
over the land as the Greek candy store. They 
have\ beaten or are beating the Italian trade in 
this line. (Greeks usually do win in competition, 
for in addition to their native shrewdness, they 
attend to business, give good return for the price, 
and keep good looking establishments; they are 
invariably polite also, and affable in so far as 
they can speak our language.) The evolution of 
this industry is as follows. There are many boot- 
blacks in Greece, not established in "parlors," but 
walking the streets with their boxes, like the boot- 
blacks on our ferry boats. Some young fellow 
came to America and took up the trade which he 
knew at home. At first he shined shoes in a saloon 


or somewhere. Then he set up a chair and later 
several chaifs outside some store and he hired one 
or two other Greeks to help him. Finally he had 
capital enough accumulated to hire a room, and 
then he employed more. Then, after a while, the 
best of these employees left him and started out 
for themselves. And so it grew. Often a suc- 
cessful man comes to own and run five or ten es- 
tablishments, sometimes in different cities. Some 
prosperous "parlors," after they have been "fixed 
up" with the best of furnishings, have been known 
to sell to other Greeks for $10,000 and $20,000. 
Often a pool room and tobacco stand is run in 
connection with the bootblack business. The ma- 
jority of employees in this industry are young 
fellows, ranging from fourteen to twenty years of 
age and some older. Sometimes a room is hired 
by the employer for these "boys" and their food 
supplied. The contract in such cases reads, "all 
expenses included." Often the boys have to work 
hard, often not; but the hours are long, as ob- 
viously must be the case in this business. The 
long hours are, however, by no means an unmiti- 
gated evil, for they force the undeveloped Greek 
boys to stay in one place and under the eye of 
their countrymen, and thus they are generally 
saved from wasting their money. These restric- 
tions also keep them in part from the temptations 
among the kind of American people, and especially 
girls, that they would meet if they had the time 
for "coming into touch with American life and 



learning the American ways of doing things," as 
some social workers express their panacea for the 
salvation of immigrants. Compare the results of 
their confined conditions with the spoiled lives of 
some of the hotel boys, who have plenty of time on 
their hands. The Greek bootblack learns thrift, 
and sees America from a safer distance, and is the 
more apt to turn out an independent and self re- 
specting business man. 


In our large cities are employed great numbers 
of Greeks in the big hotels. During the vacation 
months many of these go to the summer resort 
hotels. They hold all grades of rank in the hotel 
working army: dish washers, omnibuses, waiters, 
captains, head waiters, and bell boys, a few por- 
ters, some assistant cooks, etc. The second cook 
of the Touraine in Boston, by the way, is a Greek. 
For the waiters with the numerous tips the pay 
is large. But because of that big pay and the 
free time off and the low class of people they work 
among, some of these Greeks become quickly 
spoiled, throwing away their money in bad com- 
pany and losing their positions. Thus with these 
there is the grave temptation to work down rather 
than up. Among the hotel employees are found 
a large proportion of the best educated Greek im- 
migrants, government clerks at home, University 
of Athens law or medical students, and the like. 



The bell boy who respectfully carries up the grip 
of some great millionaire American pork-packer 
is in all likelihood the much more cultured man of 
the two. 


This is as good a place as any to put in the 
moving picture business and vaudeville shows with 
which the Greeks have been successful. They run 
a good part of Coney Island, where the property 
and concessions owned by them amount well into 
the millions. One season it was a Greek, John 
Economopoulos, that was elected "king" of the 
Mardi Gras there, from the coupons in the Even- 
ing World. These shows are to be found mostly 
in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, and others of the 
eastern and ceiitral states. West of the Missis- 
sippi we must mention one man of remarkable en- 
terprise, who, with headquarters at Seattle, has 
come to control a large number of theaters 
of a much higher grade than the above, through- 
out the western states. This is the k. K. Panta- 
zes, a native of Andros. 


We ought to mention somewhere, so let it be 
here, the two purely local industries: the Greek 
fisheries of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and 
the unique and interesting sponge fishing colony 
of Tarpon Springs, Florida. This latter we shall 
describe in another chapter. 



Curiously enough — and yet naturally, as the 
trend among Americans is all the same way — ^the 
Greek peasant has, except in a very few instances, 
never taken up here his former agricultural or 
pastoral pursuits. What a splendid thing it 
would be for America, and for the Greeks too, 
if the thousands of Greek farmers and shepherds 
who have landed on our shores could be persuaded 
to repopulate and remake our deserted farm land, 
or develop the untouched tracts. Or if only the 
Greek labor "agents" would turn their ears to the 
deserted farmers and supply Greek farm hands, 
this would be a blessing all round. In California 
there are several flourishing farms owned and 
run by Greeks, and in some instances in the same 
state Greeks have supplanted the Japanese as 
vineyard laborers. There are also a few Greek 
farmers in New York, Massachusetts, and some 
of the southern states. 


We come now to that tremendous army of day 
laborers which is ever pouring into and over our 
land and among whom are the lowest types and 
conditions. This army is divided into two great 
wings, the mill hands of the East and the railroad 
construction laborers of the West, and also there 
are the miners and a few lumbermen in the ex- 
treme West. Let us leave the factory workers 
until the last and take up the others. 


Just as in the East Italian labor is generally 
employed in railroad building and repairing, so 
in the vast West this work is done by gangs of 
Greeks, and other southeast Europe immigrants, 
in every state from Chicago to the Pacific. This 
kind of labor was taken up by the Greeks only 
about ten years ago. In the winter months they 
flock to the cities and live in harmful idleness; in 
the working months they are scattered all along 
the railroad lines. Their employers have found 
them industrious and manageable workmen. Let 
us quote, translating literally, the pathetic ac- 
count by my friend the k. Seraphim G. Canoutas 
of what he saw and learned in his trip through the 
West (1911 Greek-American Guide pp. 391, 392). 

"The laborers on the railway lines and other out of 
door work go in the winter months to the nearest cities 
and winter there, where unhappily most of them spend 
their meager earnings, which were acquired at the risk 
of health and life, especially on needless things, as 
gambling, coffee drinking, carousals, women, and such 
like. Of these men ninety out of a hundred are be- 
tween the ages of twenty and forty-five! A Greek 
traveling by rail over these immense western states 
cannot but feel grief and sorrow and be plunged into 
sorrowful thoughts, when he sees at nearly every mile 
of railway little groups of his own people with pick 
and shovel in their hands. All these have left the 
beloved fatherland, their families, their fellow-coun- 
trymen, and their lands, and come there to build and 
repair railroads in the hope of acquiring a few thou- 
sand francs— instead of which they acquire rheuma- 


tism^ tuberculosis^ venereal diseases^ and those other 
ills^ while others are deprived of feet^ hands^ eyes^ 
and some their lives! This is unhappily the bitter 
truth. If any one wishes to be persuaded that this is 
really so, he need not take the expensive journey to 
the western states, but need only follow the Greek 
newspapers published in America, especially the col- 
umns 'Greeks in America — Deaths and Accidents to 
Our Fellow Countrymen, Arrests for Gambling, etc.,* 
and he will gain some idea of it." 


In Colorado and other western states (but not 
in the Pennsylvania mines) a goodly number of 
Greeks have become miners. In this work the 
wages are high, sometimes more than $3.00 a day 
for the most dangerous and skilled labor. In 
Alaska there are probably some five hundred 
Greek miners at the present time; formerly there 
were more. There are some Greeks in the foun- 
dries of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, etc. 
There are a few lumbermen and lumber mill la- 
borers in the far West. Also we must not omit 
mention of the Greek employees in some of the 
great slaughter houses of Chicago, Omaha, Kan- 
sas, and elsewhere. 


And now we come to that horde of Greek mill 
hands, which class are becoming so familiar a 
component of all our factory towns, especially in 
New England. In many places they number into 


the thousands, and into the hundreds In many 
more. A new Greek lands and goes at once to 
some factory town where he has friends. He gets 
a job in the mill through his friends or a Greek 
**agent." Generally he begins at the bottom, and 
later works up a bit to more skilled labor. On 
small pay and hard work in the foul factory air 
— so different from the free hillsides of Hellas — 
and the fouler air of the tenement where he is 
obliged to herd, he scrapes along, striving to pay 
back his passage money and support his family 
at home and also himself. It is terribly hard at 
first, a bitter disillusionment, but after a while he 
betters his condition. There is, however, little 
chance in the factories for the Greek to display 
his natural enterprise as he does in business ven-. 
tures. Indeed it is independent business that he 
looks forward to some day. The work of the 
Greeks in the mills is probably about on a level 
with that of other nationalities. They are gen- 
erally well spoken of by their employers. As 
with the railroad laborers, so with the Greek mill 
hands this mighty inpouring that swirls into the 
muddy hollows of our factory towns is typical of 
recent years. Let this suffice : a fuller and clearer 
picture of this great class of Greek immigrants 
will be given when we describe the colony in 
Lowell, Massachusetts. 

^ 5" "AGENTS" 
One more variety of industrial activity remains 
to be described, that of the so-called "agent." 



This designation runs all the way from some petty 
faction leader who happens to know English and 
acts for a few, or some unscrupulous exploiter of 
his people who has got the upper hand, to the 
really great and enterprising contractor. The 
"agent," however, defies exact definition because of 
the many-sidedness of his occupation and the 
varying rank of his agenthood. Yet his work is 
often very important both to the Greeks and to 
the American employers. He may be a power for 
much good to his people and he may be a power 
for much harm. In the following true life his- 
tory you may see how at least one "agent" came 
to be. 

'Tis the story of a Greek — let us call him 
Evangelos — as he told it to me in his back office, 
with no idea, at the time, that I was going to 
publish. He was brought up in a seashore town 
of southern Peloponnesus in a family consisting 
of the parents, three brothers, and five sisters. 
The oldest brother went to the University of 
Athens and after he took his M.D., died. There 
was not money enough left to give Evangelos. a 
university education. Two years later, at the 
age of seventeen, he set off for Africa, and very 
soon after the father died. Thus Evangelos had 
on his shoulders the support of his mother, an old 
uncle, four sisters (the fifth had married), and also 
an older brother. From Africa he managed to 
send bits of money home till he was stricken with 
typhoid, which almost ended his career. His sec- 


ond sister had become engaged, but as the family 
property was on the verge of foreclosure, the 
friends of the fianc^ were trying to persuade him 
to break off the match. In desperation the 
mother borrowed $400 for the inevitable dowry. 
Home, then sped Evangelos, his pockets bulging, 
paid the borrowed dowry money and also half 
the mortgage. For two years he stayed at home ; 
but like most Greeks who have been abroad, rest- 
lessness came upon him and once more he started 
forth to seek his fortune and his dear ones' sup- 
port. This time the goal was the United States. 
On leaving home he gave strict orders to his 
mother never to let the girls, his sisters, work. 
So it is with all Greeks: a man would rather cut 
off his right hand than put up with the disgrace 
of allowing any of his women relatives to hire out 
to work. 

At Marseilles, where he intended to take pass- 
age, Evangelos failed to pass the medical emi- 
grant examination because of an eye trouble. So 
on the advice of someone he took passage at an- 
other port in the second cabin. This sadly cut 
down his slender pocketbook. In fact after he 
had bought his ticket, all he had left was $10. 
On shipboard, because of his knowledge of Italian, 
he made friends with an Italian physician who 
was also traveling second class. On the last day 
of the trip this doctor asked him why he looked 
so woe-begone, and so he told him. Now no one 
may land without some money in his pocket. The 


good doctor immediately lent him $60. So far, 
so good — but his eyes were troubling him worse 
than before. When the ship had docked, 
Evangelos showed his $60 and then stood in the 
line moving towards the dreaded medical inspector. 
His turn was next — But the gods from lofty 
Olympos beheld their hero. At the command of 
Zeus, crafty Hermes flew swiftly down and taking 
the form of an immigration official, called aloud 
across the dock to the doctor. The doctor turns, 
and walks aside a little way ; — like an arrow sped, 
the fleet-footed Greek has passed the gate, and 
his form is lost to view down a side alley in 
Brooklyn. For a whole year after that he 
dreamed he had been sent back to Greece. 

After returning the $60 to his friend, Evan- 
gelos took the train for a New Hampshire mill 
town, where he arrived with just $1 in his pocket. 
This he at once spent for a hotel room and break- 
fast. Thus, starting square with fortune, he set 
out. Again his knowledge of Italian stood him 
in good stead, for an Italian fruit dealer took him 
in, introduced him around, and lent him some 
money. It was the last of November and in New 
Hampshire, and soon for the first time in his life 
snow greeted his eyes. Ah! what a climate! 
what a shivering! How different from sunny 
Lakonia ! He tried to learn to weave in the mills, 
but gave it up. In fact he did nothing for a 
while except study English with a kind Baptist 
minister. He promised to pay the Italian in the 


spring, which he did, and got work in a grocery 
store and then in a bleachery, where work was 
often slack. 

After eight months he changed his residence to 
another mill town, and arrived there with $16 
capital. Here he worked in the cloth haul of the 
big cotton mill for $1.10 a day and also clerked 
in a store for two evenings a week at $1.50. At 
this time he was sending from $10 to $16 a month 
home. After a time he got a job as foreman 
of a trolley line construction gang at $2 a day, 
along with which he did several other money mak- 
ing jobs on the side. Then he was sending home 
$20 a month. At last he had saved for himself 
the sum of $470, which he kept in His room. One 
night he found that $400 of this had been stolen ! 
Taking the remaining $70 he tried to assuage his 
discouragement in Lowell and Boston by spend- 
ing the rest. Thus he had to start square with 
fortune all over again. 

He worked in a bakery. After some time he 
started one of his own. Next he opened an agency 
office and looked after the interests of those who 
would buy his bread. After a while he moved 
into a larger office. Thus he grew into a full 
fledged "agent'' with his duly fitted rooms, selling 
tickets, getting people jobs, doing their banking, 
etc., etc., but keeping the bread business going all 
the while, and ever, with true Greek ingenuity, 
dabbling into various other money making schemes. 
And, of course, all this while he supported the 


mother and three sisters at home. He became an 
acknowledged leader, at times a sort of king of his 
community, beloved by some, hated by others, yet, 
because of his money, to be reckoned with by all. 
Thus he has much to do with not only the four 
or five hundred of his own countrymen in the place, 
but with the thousand Mohammedan Albanians 
and other Easterners as well; for he can speak, 
beside English and Greek, — ^Arabic, Albanian, 
French, and Italian. He goes with an immigrant 
to the dentist, he takes charge of his money or 
lends him some, gets him a job in the mills, writes 
up insurance, gets him out of jail, interprets in 
court, sends for a priest for burials, marriages, 
baptisms, etc.— when there isn't one resident, 
which is often the case — and does a thousand and 
one other things. As is always so in such cases, 
he is maligned by Americans as well as Greeks, 
accused of extortion, etc., etc., several times 
brought to court, though nothing can ever be 
proven, and even his life has been threatened. 

Two years ago he attained, as many another 
Greek has, his primary ambition. He went home, 
taking with him $6000 and returning with $1000. 
In one day after he reached the Feloponnesan 
home the marriages of all three sisters were ar- 
ranged. He, Evangelos, paid the ample dowries, 
and he also paid off the entire balance of the debt 
on the family property. Thus gained he glory in 
his native village and the family honor was vindi- 


Of course he returned to America, for America, 
no longer Greece, seemed home. Now, that his 
sisters are provided for, but not till now, he is free 
to marry himself. Of course he still has his 
family on his mind ; in fact, when he told me this 
story, he showed me some money orders which he 
was just sending as a present for the relief of 
a sick brother-in-law and for other relatives. 

This instance may be a bit unusual, but at any 
rate it illustrates some of the things that immi- 
grants have to pass through, and also it is typi- 
cal of the usual Greek versatility and the un- 
swerving Greek loyalty to family responsibility. 

With this let us close the account of the varied 
industries of the Greeks, and pass on to their 
activities in combination. To be complete we 
should perhaps add here the professional class, — - 
physicians, lawyers, teachers, and also the clergy 
and the students, — ^but we will leave these till the 
end of the next chapter. 




New England 44,800 

New York to Maryland, indusive (New 

York City 20,000 of these) 54,950 

Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wis- 
consin (Chicago has 20,000 of these) . . 51,300 

South of Maryland and the Ohio River 24,050 

West of the Mississippi to the Pacific States 48,600 

The three Pacific States 29,000 

Total 252,700 


In the preceding chapter we saw how the Greeks 
earned their living; let us now go back and deal 
with another side of their life in America. Here 
have come these hordes from the homeland to a 
Ufe among a strange people and language and 
customs and laws and forms of religion. It has 
not been a question of the individual coming and 
fighting aJone, but of a great migration. Thus 
it is for us to investigate the interesting means 
by which they have banded themselves together 
for mutual support and communication and to 
keep alive the patriotism, the religion, and the 
\ customs of the fatherland. Then, too, we must 
consider that fundamental social factor, all im- 
portant to the salvation of the colonies of men, 
the bringing over of their families. We will 
treat all this under the following heads: Com- 
munities, Societies, Newspapers, Books, Families, 
and Schools. 


To use the k. Canoutas' distinction, we will ap- 
ply the word "colony" (irapoticia) as a general 
term to any group of Greeks of a given locality; 

and '^community'* (icoivott^s) as a specialized 



term designating a regularly organized colony, 
centering on a church organization, and always 
called "The Orthodox Greek Community.'' 

The rise of the community in America was on 
this wise. It was at the beginning of the period 
of induced immigration, in 1891, by which time 
the Greeks were gathered in some of the large 
cities in colonies numbering a few hundreds, that 
Prince George, the second son of the Greek Mon- 
arch, passed through the United States. He 
was returning home from a visit to Japan, where, 
it will be remembered, he saved the Czar of Rus- 
sia's life from the assassin's hand. On landing 
in San Francisco, he was met by a demonstration 
of a few hundred Greeks. While stopping for a 
time in New York, he received at his hotel a few 
of the leading Greeks of that city, and he left 
with them the idea of organizing a Greek society. 
Thus it came about that the five hundred or so 
compa^triots of New York established the society 
called "The Hellenic Brotherhood of Athena," 
and this society sent to Greece the request for a 
priest. Life at home without the Orthodox 
Church and the parish priest had been unknown, 
and so the immigrant liad before this felt the ne- 
cessity of such a step. Almost at the same time 
another organization ("The Therapnean," after- 
wards "The Lycurgos Society") was formed in 
Chicago for the same purpose of establishing a 
church, and in a short time a second priest had 
been called for and ,sent to that city. Such was 



the beginning of the Orthodox Greek communities 
in America.^ 

The Chicago comumnity has had a continuous 
existence to the present time. That of New York 
was spasmodic at first; so also was that of Bos- 
ton, which was established in 1899. At first 
these three communities worshipped in hired halls, 

1 There was an earlier Greek church long before the 
period of immigration, built and organized by the Greek 
cotton merchants in New Orleans in the year 1867. It still 
flourishes; and, curiously enough, the same priest who was 
sent to the first conmiunity of New York in 1891 is now 
its pastor, the Rev. P. Ferentinos, who is also the senior 
living American Greek priest. The sacred vessels and the 
vestments of this church were given by the Czar of Russia. 
It is also worth noting that the adn^strative council of 
this church has long kept its minutes in the English lan- 

The following interesting facts also must not be omitted, 
although since we are dealing here with only Greek com- 
munities they must be consigned to a footnote: In Chicago 
in 1889 a Slavo-Hellenic union was formed and called a 
Greek-bom priest of Russian education to minister to all 
the Orthodox churchmen there. In Seattle about the same 
date the Greek sailors who had settled there placed them- 
selves under the Russian bishop, who provided a Greek 
priest, graduate of a Russian seminary. Also in Galves- 
ton, Texas, some Greek sailors established a church, but 
being unable to support it, gave it over to the Russian 
bishop, and the Divine Liturgy was celebrated in both lan- 
guages. But in all these places, as soon as the Greeks be^ 
came numerous enou^, they established their own purely 
Greek church communities under the jurisdiction of Con- 
stantinople or Athens. These are^ as far as I know, the 
only instances of Slavo-Hellenic cooperation. How sad it is 
that political rancor has kept and still keeps h(^elessly 
apart in America the members of these two great branches 
of the Holy Orthodox Eastern Communion. 


changing these from time to time, sometimes clos- 
ing them altogether. The rest of the communities 
in America were established during the past ten 

In 1898 the Chicago community bought a 
church building, the first owned by Greeks after 
that of New Orleans (see note above). In 1904 
the New York Greeks bought a church at 16li 
East 72nd Street, cost $66,000; in 1906, those 
of Atlanta, Georgia; all the rest have been built 
or bought since then. The churches actually 
erected by the Greek communities, most of them 
constructed after the correct Byzantine pattern, 
number sixteen: Lowell, Boston, Ipswich, Massa- 
chusetts; Manchester, New Hampshire; Newark, 
New Jersey ; Charleston, South Carolina ; Tarpon 
Springs, Florida ; Chicago (2) ; Sheboygan, Wis- 
consin; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Pueblo, Colo- 
rado; Salt Lake City; Portland, Oregon; San 
Francisco; and also one in Montreal. Those 
buildings bought, formerly Protes tant and a few j 
^ l Anglican, number twelve: New York (i); Phila- 
• delpliia; Nashua, New Hampshire; Providence, 
Rhode Island; Pittsburg; Baltimore; Atlanta; 
Savannah; Birmingham; Chicago (1); Milwau- 
kee; Denver. A few of the above are free from 
indebtedness. The other communities hold their 
church services and community meetings in hired 
halls, and some few have hired Protestant church 
buildings. In most of the places in the country 
where are settled five hundred Greeks there have 


been communities organized. At the present time 
(191S) the American communities number 55 in 
the United States and 2 in Canada — Montreal 
and Toronto. 

Those communities founded by weU established 
business men are the best. Often the prosperity 
of the small community or its very existence de- 
pends on an uncertain industry, as in factory 
towns or among railroad construction laborers. 
Often the smaller ones will be without the minis- 
trations of a priest for months at a time or they 
will have an occasional service or ministration by 
a visiting priest. The grievous problem of many 
a place would be solved if only the several poor 
communities of a section would combine under one 
priest, who could also minister to the isolated 
Greeks. But Greek communities will rarely com- 
bine amicably. There are, I am told from reliable 
sources, enough Greek priests in the country for 
the emergency calls of marriages, baptisms and 
chrism and burials. Whether this be true or not 
— ^and it does not seem possible — assuredly it is 
a grievous fact that there are not enough to min- 
ister to the lonely dying, nor to watch over, as 
careful shepherds, the thousands of the scattered 

The Orthodox Greek Community, which is the 
official title with the addition of the name of the 
particular locality, is an association of Greeks 
for the purpose of establishing and maintaining 
a church organization and for holding the Greeks 


together. They arose not for the mere sake of 
organizing something, but always from a real ne- 
cessity. Its membership consists of all Greeks 
residing in a certain city or district. All belong 
to the community, but often the particular con- 
stitution allows votes to subscribers only. There 
is an executive committee, best translated "ad- 
ministrative council," and the usual officers of any 
organization. The property is sometimes in the 
name of trustees, sometimes not. About half the 
conmiunities are incorporated under state law, in- 
cluding all the larger ones. But there is much 
confusion in the organization of many, and this 
is the cause of the deplorable and often ridiculous 
disputes that have been so common. Such dis- 
putes seem now to be lessening. 

And now for the position of the priest, the 
pastor (€<^/A€pio9) of the community. He has 
no power as far as the written constitution goes. 
Thus we find a most anomalous condition in the 
Greek churches in America. It works out some- 
times like the worst side of the vestry system of 
the Episcopal Church parishes, without the legal 
rights of the rector, nor the possibility of inter- 
vention by the Bishop; or another analogy might 
apply in some instances, — Congregationalism run 
wild in a mission of the Apostolic, Catholic, East- 
em Church! From afar the Metropolitan Arch- 
bishop of Athens^ rules without the possibility 

2 The Patriarch of Constantinople has ceded to the Holy 
Synod of Athens the charge of the Greek Orthodox missions 
in America. 


of settling anything, much as the Bishop of Lon- 
don had charge of the Anglican parishes in this 
country before the Revolution. So the Greek 
priest is hired, and often "fired," by a parish com- 
mittee composed usually of poorly educated peas- 
ants. And thus come the wranglings and dis- 
putes and divisions into two rival church com- 
munities of a city; and thus the poor priests, 
sent out by the Holy Synod in response to the cry 
for spiritual help, sometimes find themselves as 
office boys at the mercy of their employers. 
Moreover, there are also some priests who have no 
right here; these are Macedonians, mostly of lit- 
tle education, who, coming to America, have 
slipped their bishop's jurisdiction and are min- 
istering without authority wherever they can 
make the most money, sometimes underbidding 
and ousting the priests sent by a bishop. Of 
course, conditions are not everywhere bad in com- 
munities, but the system is sadly irresponsible. 
The only solution seems to be a resident bishop 
for America; may his advent be soon! 


We have seen that in some places societies were 
organized for the purpose of arousing the inter- 
est and funds for the establishment of communi- 
ties and the calling of a priest. With the great 
influx of immigrants during the past five or six 
years, associations with other objects sprung up 
I everywhere until now there is at least one society 


of some sort in probably every town or city where 
there are over a hundred fellow-countrymen. Most 
of these are benevolent or patriotic in purpose, or 
are formed for the banding together in a town of 
all the Greeks from one particular locality in 
Greece or Turkey. In the large communities of the 
great cities there are a great m€«iy such societies. 
The objects are to cultivate friendship among the 
members, help those in need, care for the sick or 
provide that they be cared for in hospitals, pay 
funeral expenses, etc. Rare it is, almost un- 
known, that a Greek pauper "goes on the town" 
or is aided by an American charity organization. 
The Greeks are too proud for that, and they look 
after their own needy. Then, too, many of these 
societies send contributions home to help some 
poor church or school or hospital or orphanage 
and the like. Such benefactions have been espe- 
cially welcome among the Greek districts in what 
were till this year Turkish dominions, where the 
churches and schools have been maintained en- 
tirely by voluntary offerings. For example, a so- 
ciety in Chicago, made up entirely of men from 
a certain town in Macedonia, will send regular 
contributions for the support of the church and 
school in their home village. Here is an interest- 
ing instance : In 1910 a Society of the Panarge- 
ians undertook the praiseworthy resolve to give 
each year the all necessary marriage dowry for 
one orphan girl, chosen by lot, in the native 
province of the members. At times of great ca- 


tastrophes in Greece, Turkey, and elsewhere these 
societies stand ready to contribute their little. 
On the occasion of the San Francisco earthquake 
some sent contributions for the relief of the suf- 
ferers. There are, or were before the Balkan 
war broke out, volunteer companies for military 
drill in New York, Chicago, Lowell, Manchester 
and Nashua, New Hampshire; Biddeford, Maine; 
and some other places. Their former members 
did good service in the war. In New York there 
is a first-class "Greek- American Athletic Associa- 
tion," recognized by the A. A. U., with a member- 
ship of some two hundred young Greeks. They 
have their own gymnasium in the basement of the 
80th Street Greek Church, and hope to have a 
better one soon. These descendants of the ath- 
letes of Ancient Greece have won many a prize at 
A. A. U. meets.^ There is also in New York a 
remarkablei society of Greek women called the 
"Charitable Fraternity'' or "Sorority of Ladies'' 
— or shall we not, transliterating it, invent the 
interchangeable term "Adelphoty." (College 
Greek letter societies please take note of this use- 
ful Hellenic derivative.) This society has offices 
in one of the Greek churches. When some sick 
man, who is not a member of some society, or who 
is brought to New York from elsewhere, turns up, 

8 Why does someone not try to get the Greeks to start 
the Boy Scout Movement among their boys? Other for- 
eigners in this country have done this. It would be just the 
thing to interest the Greek lad and keep him straight 


these ladies care for him and furnish his ticket 
home to Greece. Their funds are raised by col- 
lecting at the church and among the Greek shops, 
and by an annual ball. The two Greek trans- 
atlantic lines offer at each sailing for use by this 
society several tickets at reduced rates, and some- 
times other steamship companies do the same. 
There are like women's societies in Chicago, Bos- 
ton, and San Francisco; and each of them hold 
annual balls, the receipts from which go for be- 
nevolent, objects. Finally there are a few socie- 
ties, like American business associations, of Greeks 
engaged in some particular line of business. 

To give an idea of the number and varieties of 
these associations, here is a list of Greek societies 
in New York city in 1911. It is not complete, 
and some have doubtless gone out of existence. 

Association of Florists 

Association of Confectioners 

Charitable Adel|Jioty of Ladies 

Greek-American Athletic Association 

Volunteer Company (Military) 

Naupactian Brotherhood (Members from this 
district in Greece) 

Skourovarvitsian Brotherhood (Members from 
this district in Greece) 

The Phoenix, Pan-Cretan Society 

Hope Society, Imbrian 

Philoktetes, Lesbian Brotherhood 

Pittakos, also a Lesbian Brotherhood 


Hephaistos, Lemnian Brotherhood 

Brotherhood of Marmara (from Thrace near 
Constantinople ) 

Ganochorriton Brotherhood (Thrace) 

Messenian Society, The Annunciation. 

The Olympos Brotherhood of Litochoritons 
(from Macedonian district) 

Naoussaian League (Macedonia) 

Brotherhood of Kremastiotons (Macedonia) 

Society of Deskate (Macedonia) 

Brotherhood of the Kozantinans (Macedonia) 

Epirian Concord League 

Unanimity Brotherhood (from some particular 

The Grood Hope Brotherhood (from some par- 
ticular district) 

The Society of Demetsanitons, Gregory V (the 
martyr Patriarch of 1821 from his birthplace in 

There is also another kind of society among the 
Greeks, which will appeal especially to Americans, 
which societies have for their object the instruc- 
tion of the immigrants towards naturalization as 
American citizens, e. g. the Hellenic- American Po- 
litical Club of Tarpon Springs, Florida. Such 
associations exist in Atlanta, San Francisco, New 
York, Chicago, and elsewhere. In an interview 
with the Sunday Worlds September 24, 1911, Mr. 
Wallace, Clerk of Courts in New York, said: 
**The most intelligent applicants for naturaliza- 


tion papers are Greeks.'' In the past few years 
there have been many petitions in all cities by the 


We come now to the society for all the Greeks 
of America. The idea originated with the great 
Anagnos. (See last chapter of this book.) In 
1904, two years before he died, he formed an or- 
ganization in Boston and had it chartered under 
the name of "The National Union," with objects 
much the same as the present society, and by lec- 
tures in New York and Chicago he tried to found 
a few branches. However, with his death the plan 
fell through. After a year or so, with much talk 
of organization, a committee of the presidents o{ 
the local societies in New York and some oth- 
ers from elsewhere, arranged for a convention 
which met in New York in the autimm of 1907 
and organized under the name of "The Pan- 
Hellenic Union.'* The next convention was held 
in Chicago, and the next in Boston. In 1910 the 
headquarters of the central administrative coun- 
cil were fixed in Boston for four years. This 
was the real beginning of the society as it is 
now. Before this the unit of membership was the 
local society, but in 1910 this was changed to the 
individual, regardless of society, and separate 
branches under a central administration have 
been established all over the country. Thus we 
have a new phase of Greek association, distinct 


from the local community and binding together 
the Greeks of different localities for the whole 
country. During the working out of its organi- 
zation the inevitable Hellenic factions and jeal- 
ousies arose within and without. 

The Pan-Hellenic Union is certainly a splendid 
effort and will increase in usefulness as it grows. 
In 1911 it comprised some eight thousand mem- 
bers in fifty branches ; by the end of 1912 it had 
run up into the twenty thousands in 150 branches. 
Its objects are to protect the immigrant , to help 
him in sickness and poverty; to assist him to 
become familiar with the laws and customs of his 
new home, and yet not to forget his fatherland, 
language, or religion ; to establish schools ; to rem- 
edy factional strife and other abuses ; — ^in general 
to supervise and uplift the Greeks in America as 
a whole. 

The first Article of the Constitution reads as 
follows : — 

1. Objects of the Pan Hellenic Union. 

The Greeks residing in the U. States and Canada 
do hereby ordain and establish a fraternity which shall 
be known as the Pan Hellenic Union. 

The Pan Hellenic Union shall have for its objects: 

a. To cultivate among its members and through 
them among all the Greeks residing in the United 
States and Canada the spirit of mutual aid and of 
love for their own nationality. 

b. To instil veneration and affection for the laws 
and institutions of their adopted country and for cul- 


tivation of friendly relations between the Greeks and 
American citizens. 

c. To teach the £nglish and Greek languages^ to 
preserve the Greek Orthodox Church and to develop 
and propagate educational and moral doctrines among 
the Greek compatriots residing in the United States 
and Canada. 

d. To procure pecuniary and other aid for the mem- 
bers of the Union and those dependent upon them^ 
and^ as far as its means will permit^ to extend its pro- 
tection to Greek immigrants and laborers. 

e. To secure the moral and material assistance of 
the Union toward the great needs of the Nation. 

The men at the helm of the Union, its adminis- 
trative council, are not immigrants, but men of ) 
refinement and education, professional men and 
representatives of the great Greek commercial 
houses. His Excellency the k. Coromilas, ex-Min- 
ister to the United States, did much for the work- 
ing out of the problem and gave the Union its first 
by-laws. The past president was Professor Ion, 
formerly on the faculty of the Boston University 
Law School. The present president is the k. 
Sinadinos, manager along with ex-Consul Ben- 
aki of the Boston branch of the great Egyptian 
cotton house of Choremi and Benaki. Dr. Vrah- 
nos, a Boston physician, is the vice-president. 

On January 1, 1912, a new and important ad- 
vance in the administration of the Union was 
made, the election, as a general manager who \ 

should devote his whole time to the work, of a 


famous Greek statesman, who, relinquishing well 
earned honors in Greece, came here for this very 
purpose — ^the uplift of his compatriots in America. 
This is the Hon. Constantine Papamichalopoulos, 
member of the Greek Parliament for twenty years. 
Minister of Education and Religion for twelve, 
and also an ex-Governor of Attica and Boeotia, 
well known as an author and traveler. He is the 
administrative head of the Union, and his task is a 
tremendous and difficult one. The headquarters of 
the Union are at 68 State Street, Boston, where 
is the office of the general manager and his corps 
of secretaries. There are several traveling inspec- 
tors, and recently several of the leading Greek 
priests in America were appointed lecturers to 
spread the work of the Union and try to minister 
to the unshepherded colonies. 

In August, 191^, at the annual meeting, there 
sat for a whole week in Boston a notable gathering, 
the officers and 127 delegates, one from each branch 
— ^physicians, lawyers, newspaper men, etc., from 
all over the United States. And the very first mo- 
tion passed was to vote a goodly sum from the all 
too inadequate funds of the Union for the relief of 
the earthquake sufi^erers in the JBgean! Among 
other donations the Union issued a request last 
summer for subscriptions to the Washington Me- 
morial Building. In the call to arms and the 
provisions for the passage money and the care of 
the families of the Greeks who went home to fight 
the Turks last autumn, the Pan-Hellenic Union 




^^ -''^*;^]HflH 

«» V , 

f^y*^ 1 


took the leading part, and also in the raising of 
funds for the Greek Red Cross Society, etc. 

It was recently enacted that no member of 
the Union may become a community officer. 
You may recognize a member by his button, 
white, with the imperial double-headed eagle and 
the lettering in blue and gold. 


In the year. 1894 a Greek named Solon J. 
Vlastos had the enterprise to start a Greek news- 
paper in New York. It was called Atlantis , 
and has continued to the present under the same 
publisher. At first it was a four-page weekly. 
There were then, it is true, not many subscribers 
to support such a paper; but so enthusiastic did 
these few wax at the actuality of a paper of 
their own, and such hearty encouragement did 
they give its editor, that the publication lived. 
After a time it appeared twice a week, and finally 
in 1903 it became a daily, and soon the office, 
occupying a whole building, was fitted out with 
the up-to-date machinery of an up-to-date news- 
paper, with a large office force and daily special 
cable service from Athens, Constantinople, Lon- 
don, etc. Now the issue of Atlantis numbers 
from twenty to twenty-five thousand, and is read 
in every part of the country. It also has a cir- 
culation in Europe. Also all over the country 
goes the other Greek daily of smaller issue, Pan- 
Hellenic. This was started in 1904 in New 
York by Socrates Xanthaky. Oh! how won- 


drously doth history repeat herself! Here, 
after the lapse of nearly 2500 years, again we 
see Solon and Socrates, in very flesh and blood, 
striving as of old to mold the lives of the Greeks. 
Their headquarters, however, are no longer the 
Areopagos or the Agora, but 31st and Vesey 
Streets, New York. Then, alas! they have de* 
teriorated in the process of reincarnation, for we 
find not Socratic highmindedness nor yet So- 
Ionic disinterestedness. These two are the only 
daily Greek newspapers in America, and they are 
bitter rivals. There was another which had a 
brief existence called Thermopyla. The Greek 
newspapers in America now number sixteen and 
are located as follows: — New York, 2 daily and 
2 semi-weekly; Boston, Lowell, Lynn, Manches- 
ter, Pittsburg, 1 weekly each; Chicago, 1 semi- 
weekly and 2 weekly; Salt Lake City, 2 weekly; 
San Francisco, 2 weekly. 

The Greek above all men loves to devour his 
newspaper. If you enter his place of business 
for a friendly chat and he is reading his paper, 
you must wait. This is not discourtesy, for the 
Greek is the most courteous of men; it is habit. 
Indeed the newspaper, above all else, keeps him 
in touch with the fatherland and with his fellow- 
countrymen here, and it also tells him of Ameri- 
can life. The Greek newspapers contain the 
happenings in Hellas, especially the politics, — 
every Greek is a well-versed and fluent politician. 
A list of the religious and other holidays is given 


in them. Then the reader finds the social and 
commercial events and progress of his compatri- 
ots all over America: the weddings (now almost 
every day and mostly of Greek with Greek), the 
funerals, baptisms, new business openings, new 
churches, new societies. Then there is the gen- 
eral news of the country, and also the world 
news under the foreign associated press. These 
papers are written in good Greek — and remem- 
ber that, contrary to the notion of many Ameri- 
cans, practically all the Greeks in America can 
read good Greek just as practically all Americans 
can read good English. Much have these news- 
papers done toward the enlightenment and gen- 
eral development of the Greeks in this country; 
but also they have done much to animate the 
factional feeling which is so common and deplora- 

The Patris, published in Lowell weekly, by a 
Greek gentleman of education, the k. Michel 
latros, has as its object to satirize the foibles of 
the Greeks in America. 

The Atlantis Company publishes an excellent 
magazine (issue about 12,000), The Atlcmiis Il- 
lustrated Monthly. It is much like our American 
magazines, perhaps most resembling Collier^s in 
appearance, containing the usual magazine arti- 
cles and the news of the month in the United 
States, Greece, and the world. It is finely illus- 
trated. It has thirty or forty pages and costs 
$2.00 a year. 


There are also several other Greek magazines 
of very recent beginning. 

Also there is a monthly magazine in English, 
edited by a Greek, the k. T. T. Timayenis of 
Boston, The Eastern and Western Review. Be- 
sides general matter it usually contains interest- 
ing articles about Greeks and Greece. 


Then the books which the Greeks here read — * 
it is interesting to note their character. They 
may be found at the Greek book stores, as also 
the interesting crude lithographs, and Eikons, and 
music. First in order of demand come the Eng- 
lish method books and lexicons; then patriotic 
books, stories of the ancient heroes and those of 
the War of Independence; and the many reli- 
gious books of the Orthodox Church, prayer 
books, lives of our Lord and of the Saints, and 
Church histories. Then beside the above good 
books, there is all too great a demand for a 
trashy class of light fiction.* 

The Atlantis Company, which in addition to 

4 In Providence, Rhode Island, Lowell, Massachusetts, and 
elsewhere, an excellent scheme has been instituted which 
should be adopted throughout the country. The Public Li- 
brary has a foreign department, with books in foreign lan- 
guages and special facilities to attract the immigrant to 
use them. They have a shelf full of modern Greek books 
and Greeks use them. This is a very practical way of help- 
ing the Greek immigrant In the selection of such books 
one of the two leading book stores should be consulted, and 
also the leading men of the Greek community where the 
library is situated. 


its newspaper and magazine does a large book 
business, writes me as follows: 

"The importation of Greek books has grown con- 
siderably in the last few years. Considering the fact 
that the majority of the Greek immigrants are labor- 
ers of meager education^ the call for books is aston- 
ishing. With all our long experience in the publishing 
fields we were surprised to find what a great demand 
exists for modern Greek translations of Greek classics 
(pages 4i5-51, our catalog). These translations have 
been produced by a publisher in Athens at great cost^ 
but notwithstanding their high prices^ they sell so 
fast that we cannot keep our stock complete. Also 
Greek translations of works of Tolstoi, Debay, Nor- 
dau, Dastre, Taine, Haeckel, Lubbock, Buckner, etc., 
are favorable books with our readers. Of course the 
bulk of our trade is in Greek-English educational 
books. A few of these books are sold to American 

"Atlas," the other leading Greek book store 
(26 Madison Street, New York) writes me on the 
book-selling business: 

(( < 

'Atlas,' owned by John Rompapas, established 
1910, has a money order business mostly. In the 
first year, July, 1910, to July, 1911, we had about 
an $8000 business; but this year (1911) the business 
increased to a surprising amount. We imported from 
Greece from July, 1911, to Dec. 5, 1911, seventy- 
four cases of books, worth $10,000, and on every 
steamer we keep on bringing books. We send price 
lists all over the United States, and the Greeks order 


hocks (prepaid). I believe of all the foreigners, 
Greeks are reading the most. Tlaton,' 48 James 
Street, New York, established a book store in October, 
1911. They are going to import books as 'Atlas' and 
'Atlantis.' All over the United States there are a 
few book stores, but their business is in combination 
with other business. They buy their books from New 
York — and sometimes they import a case direct. 
Also there are about five or six booksellers going from 
town to town as peddlers with books." 

A number of books have been published by 
Greeks in America to help the Greek immigrant 
understand his adopted country and its language. 
In 1903 Atlantis put out the "Greeks' Compan- 
ion in America,'' giving information concerning 
the passage to America, the geography of the 
United States, immigration laws, etc. The next 
year appeared the "Thermopylae Almanac" by 
the k. Booras, giving in addition to such facts 
some account of the Greek colonies in the United 
States. Then Atlantis published some Greek- 
English lexicons; English lesson books based on 
the Holendorf method; a "History of the United 
States" which has run through two editions; a 
"History of Greece"; pocket dictionaries; and 
several other books. Until lately most of their 
publications were given as premiums to subscrib- 
ers. There are also several other pocket dic' 
tionaries and lesson books compiled by other 
Greeks in America. 

The most complete and valuable book for the 

ii^ iiif^ ■ ■ 


Greeks in America is the "Greek American Guide 
and Directory," published annually since 1908 
by the k. Seraphim G. Canoutas, graduate in 
law of the University of Athens, and in 1912 of 
an American law school, who came to this country 
in 1905. This book is widely used, and is com- 
mended by the Greek officials in America and 
Greece. It contains all sorts of useful informa- 
tion for the immigrant: American laws, history, 
geography, statistics, customs and life; the story 
of Greek immigration; and a complete accotmt 
of all the colonies and communities in the United 
States and Canada, with many pictures; and also 
a full list in English of the Greek churches and 
clergy, merchants, shopkeepers, physicians, news- 
papers, etc., etc., with addresses, listed by states 
and cities. The k. Canoutas obtained much of 
his information by a tour of every state in the 
Union (except Arizona and New Mexico). He 
also gives much salutary advice to his fellow- 
countrymen. He writes in a disinterested and 
sympathetic spirit, striving to avoid flattery and 
faction, and scrupulously adhering to facts. The 
k. Canoutas is now practicing law in Boston. 


We come now to a factor in the evolution of 
Greek immigration that is of the utmost impor- 
tance to the moral welfare and settled establish- 
ment of the Greeks. Practically no Greek 
immigrant on his first arrival brings his wife. 


For financial reasons he obviously cannot. She 
and the little children are left in Greece and the 
father slaves here to support them. Thus we 
find, as with most recent immigrants, crowds of 
men herded together without the mellowing influ- 
ence of family life, and subject to terrible temp- 
tations. Moreover, to the Greek, coming from 
a country where the bringing up of girls is strict 
and the sexual morality is splendid, the freedom 
of American girls and women, good as well as 
bad, both shocks and allures him. In Greece no 
decent girl would ever be out after dark without 
an escort. And the shameless immorality of our 
factory towns and of many other kinds of towns 
all over the country cannot but corrupt the lonely 
newcomer. But how is it when he has learned 
English and come to understand American life 
and ideals? Does American law and public sen- 
timent teach him to hate the immorality that he 
sees? Quite the contrary. He never heard of 
in Greece that terrible laxness in divorce laws, 
that rank looseness among the "leaders of soci- 
ety," that daily scandal-mongering of news- 
papers, which things are the crying shame of this 
free land of ours. The Greeks are not corrupt- 
ing us ; we are corrupting them. Nay, rather in 
Greece the relation of the sexes is almost puritan- 
ical. Holy matrimony is a sacrament and a re- 
sponsibility the most sacred and binding, children 
the . best of blessings, — ^the family there is still 
treated as the foundation of society. Therefore 


it is that the great salvation of the Greek men is 
the coming of the women. 

In 1891 there were scaxpelj any Greek families 
in America. Little by little those who were 
married began to send back or go back for their 
wives. It was not, however, until 1905 that any 
appreciable number of women begani to immi- 
grate. Numbered by hundreds before in the 
United States, they can now be counted by thou- 
sands. This is encouraging, but the proportion 
is still infinitesimal.^ 

Sometimes they live in poor tenements, 
sometimes in their own house, — for in nearly ev- 
ery city or town where the Greeks are counted 
by scores, some few have bought and own their 
homes; this is especially true in some of the 
southern cities. As we mentioned above, Greek 
weddings occur almost every day, and but few 
are mixed marriages. Of late unmarried girls 
have been coming more and more with their 
brothers or parents, and many come already affi- 
anced. God grant that the family life may fast 
increase among the Greeks in America. 


And now the latest factor. As the Greek 
families are becoming established, there are the 
Greek children to be educated. To the Ameri- 
can public schools they can and do go, and prove 

6 In one Greek colony,, but its case is unique^ the number 
of Greek women exceeds that of the men. This is in Ipswich, 


bright scholars; but this means a severance from 
the language of the fatherland, ancient as well 
as modem, and from the religion not only of 
Greece, but from all religion. Thus after the 
development of the Greek churches, naturally fol- 
lows the development of Greek schools. This, 
however, is only just beginning. No Sunday- 
schools exist in Greece; for there the Catechism, 
the Bible, and the Prayers are taught as a funda- 
mental part of the curriculum from the begin- 
ning to the end of school days in every school in 
the Kingdom and enslaved Greece. Naturally 
the Greek father feels that our American schools 
are fundamentally lacking for the child of the 
Church and Hellas. This need firs,t began to 
be felt only about four or five years ago. There 
are thus far schools in Boston, Lowell, Lynn 
and Chicago of from fifty to a hundred pupils, 
and smaller schools in a number of other places. 
A large and suitable building was purchased in 
the autumn of 1911 in the Bronx, New York, 
costing $35,000, to be used as a school and 
as a dormitory for the care of poor and destitute 
Greek children. As time goes on the number 
of Greek schools will increase, and their organi- 
zation become more perfected. The Pan-Hellenic 
Union plans to establish schools of all grades 
when sufficient funds are forthcoming. Re- 
member, these schools are not for the men — they 
attend the American night schools and the like 
to learn English, — ^the schools we are discussing 


in this section are for the boys and girls of the 
Greek families. 

In these schools the Greek curriculum is fol- 
lowed, combined with t!he American. There is 
always an American teacher or two as well as 
Greek. They are not parochial schools in the 
usual acceptation of the term as applied to the 
Roman Catholic schools, for the priest of the 
community has no direct relation to the school; 
but just as in Greece it goes without saying that 
religion is taught by the regular teachers, so it 
is here. In Greece it is not left to the Greek 
mother nor to the parish priest to make sure that 
the child says his prayers, and his grace before 
and after meals, and knows how to take part in 
the worship of the church and learns the life of 
our Lord and other Bible stories and his cate- 
chism. All these, in Greece, are insisted on in 
school by law. 

Much has been thoughtlessly said and written 
against the Greek keeping up his language and 
his interest in his native country and his "merely 
formal" religion. "Such things prevent his be- 
coming a good American!" Yet Greek, Greece, 
and the Orthodox Church are and have 
been down the centuries ever sinlce St. Paul's 
time, the three sources of all that is lofty 
in Greek character. If we try to cut off the 
Greek child from these, what have our schools 
to offer in return? Nay rather, if you wish 
him to become a good and useful American citi* 


zen, allow him every incentive to that refining 
culture in the sublimest of languages and litera- 
tures, which our people sadly need ; that unswerv- 
ing patriotism which so many of our boys have 
ceased to feel ; that holy religion which, whatever 
its seeming formalism, is at least a reminder of 
the presence of the Christ whom the majority of 
Americans have forgotten. 

In the few Greek schools that have been es- 
tablished, though far from perfected as yet, the 
pupils get a training for the American high 
school as good as, I doubt not often better than, 
in the American grammar schools. In the Bos- 
ton school, for example, you may hear the bright- 
eyed Greek lad of thirteen translate Xenophon 
to perfection, or English into good classic Greek. 


One more phase should be treated — the coming 
of the professional class, in distinction from the 
peasant. About five years ago some of the well- 
educated men in Greece, lured by the oft-reported 
successes in America of the immigrant peasants, 
took it into their heads that if the peasant could 
so succeed, how much better the man of culture. 
So they came — ^medical, law, philological, and 
even theological students who had not yet be- 
gun their career at home, practicing lawyers, 
teachers, government clerks and the like. Alas! 
bitter has been the disillusionment of these men 
of education. The stronger and more coura- 


geous have taken employment in hotels and fac- 
tories far below their due sitation in life; the 
others, who could not stoop to menisd work, have 
done the best they could at miserable pay in 
newspaper offices, clerkships, etc. This class, 
contrary to the prevalent opinion, are far more 
undesirable immigrants than the peasant class. 
They, whose ambitions as cultured men were high, 
never expected such a life, and all too often they 
become embittered, and, yielding toi the ready 
temptations, spoiled. The more poorly educated 
peasant, hard and disappointing as he generally 
finds conditions here, never aimed so high, and 
he has the chance and the will to develop upward 
instead of dowlaward. 

There are a number of Greek lawyers in the 
United States, but few as yet have been admitted 
to the bar because of the extreme difficulties of 
learning the language of legal English and the 
endless variety of laws peculiar to the country 
and the different states. 

With physicians it is not so hard, as medical 
terms and practice are more or less alike the 
world over. There are some forty or fifty Greek 
physicians in various parts of the United States, 
half of whom are duly licensed, and most of the 
rest will be shortly. These practice for the 
most part among their own countrymen. These 
physicians and the lawyers too, got their degrees 
from the University of Athens, and a few studied 
in France or Germany. 


There are also two Greek dentists in Chicago 
and one in New York, one of whom was originally 
an Orthodox deacon, and several are studying 
in American dental schools. 

Here is the story of one Greek M' D., — ^I 
think he is the only one who began his training 
here. He had immigrated to America, and 
started a barber shop in Washington, D. C, but 
being ambitious, he took up the study of medi- 
cine in the Georgetown University evening school. 
He was equipped with only a partial gymnasium 
education in Greece. He still kept his tonsorial 
establishment open, but did not cut hair any 
longer; and his patrons used to see him sitting 
in the back of the shop poring over his medical 
books. Now Dr. Constans is a successful prac- 
titioner at the capital, and has become a demon- 
strator on the faculty of the medical department 
of Georgetown. 

For years there have occasionally been Greeks 
studying in our American colleges. At the pres- 
ent time there are somewhere between 30 and 
60, and each year the number increases. True 
to the characteristic Greek ambition for educa- 
tion, nearly all attain high rank, and also 
nearly all are poor boys, working their way 
through. A few years ago a Greek chemist, 
graduate of Columbia (Dr. Stateropoulos, aft- 
erwards called to a Professorship in his Alma 
Mater) conceived the idea of an association for 
all Greek students in America. The plan fell 


through, but later the scheme was taken up and 
worked out by a brilliant student at Harvard, 
the k. Phoutrides. Thus in November, 1911, was 
formed the present association, whose letter head 

greek students* association " helicon " 

21 Ellbry Strbct, Cambridge, Mass. 

The charter members were thirteen Greek stu- 
dents from Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, and Tufts; and these proceeded to 
try to get into communication with Greek stu- 
dents in American colleges in all parts of the 
country. By August, 191^, the Association 
numbered 40, including graduates of colleges, 
some high school students, and several honorary 
members. At that date the secretary, the k. 
B. Despotes wrote me: 

"Our Association numbers only a few months' life 
as yet, but its activity has proved it to be a lusty baby 
with great promises. I have no doubt you realize 
how hard it is to find the Greek students all over the 
wide, wide U. S. ; communicate not only with them, 
but find also their moral and intellectual standard by 
applying to the authorities of different schools. Sum- 
mer vacation has interrupted the work of the Associa- 
tion and several applications for membership are 
awaiting the approval of the general conference of the 
members. I am very much pleased to say that only 

* Prometheus 267. 


high grade students are admitted to our association^ 
both morally and intellectually. 
Objects of the Association: — 

1. To promote the learning among the Greeks^ giv- 
ing every information and aid in its power to any 
Greek applicant. 

2. To promote intellectual development and culti- 
vate literary taste and reasoning ability among its 
own members. 

S. To acquaint the American nation with what 
seems to us to be worthy and beautiful in our own 
nation and its literature and life." 

The following examples of the brilliant work 
of Greek students in America may be cited: A. 
Phoutrides (president of the Association), who 
graduated from Harvard in 1911 with snmma 
aim laude after taking several of the highest 
prizes in the gift of the university; Dr. Kyria- 
kides, D. Sc. (the Association's treasurer), grad- 
uate of Michigan, inventor of a new chemical 
compound in organic chemistry; N. Catsainos, 
recipient of one of the highest prizes at M. I. 
T. ; and N. Cassavetes, who was valedictorian at 
Mt. Hermon Academy and is now doing fine work 
at Harvard. Also, a young Greek named Kav- 
akos, a few years ago took the first prize in sculp- 
ture at the Institute of Maryland and was sent 
abroad on a $4000 fellowship to complete his 
studies in Germany. 

Alas ! as far as I know there are now no native 
Greeks holding the professorships of Greek in 


our American colleges. We greatly need them. 
Greeks are the best fitted to teach us Greek J 

There is also that other distinct professional 
caste, the Greek Orthodox clergy. Part are 
married and part are the unmarried from the 
monasteries.® Of these there are about fifty 
sent by the Holy Synod of Athens or His Beati- 
tude the Patriarch of Constantinople, now all 
under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of 
Athens. There are also, as we mentioned above, 
a number of tmsent priests, who, though in Holy 
Orders, are ministering without authority. Of 
the sent priests some are of good education, 
some are not. They are sometimes accused of 
being "lovers of filthy lucre." Without doubt 
many are — though they acquired the habit only 
after they reached America — ^but certainly some 
are faithful, saintly shepherds, respected and be- 
loved by their flocks. As mentioned above, their 

7 There is a Greek Professor of Music at New Mexico 
State College! 

8 The title Archimandrite — ^there are a number in America 
(6 *Apx» as distinguished from plain 6 'Acd. The Rev.) 
— ^is not that of an abbot, but simply an honorary title 
given to priest-monks only. In their ecclesiastical attire an 
Archimandrite is distinguished by his headgear, a veil-like 
cloth or hood down over the brimless hat and falling to the 
back and shoulders. The Greek term for the secular mar- 
ried priest is lepeifs; for the unmarried monk-priest 
Upo/iSpaxos, There are a few honorary titles of little 
significance given to married priests, as oUopSfiof and 
vpcDTovpeffp^frepos, The usual word for a priest in charge 
of a parish or community — which I have translated **pas- 
tor" — ^is 'E4yiifUptos* 


bishopless position in the Greek Orthodox com- 
munities of the United States is at present an 
extremely difficult one. There are five or six so- 
called Greek Protestant missionaries in America. 
Of the only two such Greeks I have happened to 
hear of, one is a rascal and the other isn't. But 
they can make no more impression on the Ortho- 
dox Greek in America, than do the American and 
English Protestant "missionary*' proselytizers 
in Greece, 


Let us mention here the diplomatic service of 
Greece in the United States. The Royal Lega- 
tion of Greece in Washington, D. C, was estab- 
lished in 1908 with His Excellency the k. Koro- 
milas as Minister. Last year he was recalled 
and is now in the Cabinet of Venezelos. The Le- 
gation has since been under the Honorable k. Kaf- 
tantzoglu, Charge d'Affaires. In New York 
the Honorable k. Botassis, the dean of the 
Greek service in America, is consul general. The 
other diplomatic posts, consulates and vice-con- 
sulates (all unsalaried positions) are in the fol- 
lowing cities: Boston, Philadelphia, Wilming- 
ton, Chicago, St. Louis, Nashville, Mobile, 
Omaha, Tacoma, and San Francisco. 


We have seen how the Greeks in America have 
become banded together in various ways for 


■^. . 



united activities and benefits, and how through 
it all one of their chief objects has been to keep 
alive the fire of patriotism, the love for the father- 
land. Thus we cannot close this chapter in a 
more fitting manner than by briefly telling their 
latest and greatest united effort which all Amer- 
ica, yes, the whole Christian world, has seen and ap- 
plauded. When the glorious Balkan War which 
has swept the Turk from Europe broke out in the 
autumn of 1912, the call to arms sounded through- 
out America. And the vaunted patriotism of the 
Greeks everywhere proved itself no idle boast. 
Never before in history has just such a spectacle 
been seen: hosts of immigrants sacrificing their 
all and hastening home from all over the world 
to fight for their oppressed brethren and to gain 
back the century-enslaved lands which are Greek 
by right. Thus was Greece furnished with a suf- 
ficient supply of soldiers and sailors. Splendid 
enthusiasm was displayed in every colony of 
Greeks in the United States, and those who did 
not go, contributed generously. That autumn 
and winter at our Atlantic seaports the crowds 
of embarking patriots were familiar and inspiring 
sights, as they marched to the ships, singing their 
national anthem and receiving the final blessing 
from their priests. Between 40000 and 60000 
i^servists and volunteers went to Greece from 
America. Most of these saw active service and 
acquitted themselves nobly in the victorious war. 
It is an almost certain prediction to make that 


nearly all of them will return to America — ex- 
cept those who have given their lives for the holy 
cause on the field of battle. 



As in the fatherland the Greek ever loved to 
celebrate the holidays of his church or nation, 
and as the rites and ministrations of his church 
played a very intimate part in his yearly round, 
so it is still with him after he has taken up his 
abode in America. 


The greatest day of all the year is the Greek 
Independence Day, March 26th (Eastern calen- 
dar) — ^April 7th (Western calendar),^ commem- 
orating that great day in 1821 when Archbishop 
Germanus raised first the standard of the Cross 
for freedom. Because [this is generally not a 
holiday in America, they are usually forced to 
celebrate it on the following Sunday. Two 
springs ago (1912), because the day happened 
to coincide with Easter, it was moved one week 

1 The Greek calendar is 13 days behind ours — a somewhat 
confusing fact. This is because the Eastern Orthodox coun- 
tries have always adhered to the old Julian or Dionysian 
calendar, while the Western nations have adopted since 1589 
"the "New Style" Gregorian calendar, as reformed by order 
of Pope Gregory XIII. Russia adopted the Gregorian cal- 
endar in 1909. 




later by order of the Eminent Commander of the 
Pan-Hellenic Union. For this each community 
makes elaborate preparations, and the Greek news- 
papers give the pictures and re-tell the stories of 
the heroes of the war. The day begins, of course, 
with the Divine Liturgy (Holy Eucharist), and 
then come great mass meetings with patriotic 
speeches, and parades, etc. 

Let me quote a typical account from the Bid- 
deford Journal, April 16th, 1912, of Biddeford 
and Saco, Maine, where there is a community of 
500 Greeks. 

"The 91st anniversary of the Independence of 
Greece was celebrated by the American-Greek resi- 
dents of Biddeford and Saco^ Smiday^ with special 
services in National Hall^ a street parade led by Pan- 
chaud's band and patriotic features that were sym- 
bolic of the liberty gained through centuries of 
struggle in the mother country. 

"The committee in charge of the programme for the 
day were Nicholas Collins^ £. Boucouvalas^ George 
Vassals and Peter Victor^ and under their direction 
the patriotic services were carried out with great 
credit to this newer element to our citizenship^ and 
the pride of older residents who viewed the parade. 

"The religious service that was after the Greek 
Orthodox form was held in National Hall^ and was 
impressive^ though not long. Following this came an 
address to the Greek people by Michel latros of Bos- 
ton, who is the editor of the weekly publication. The 
Patris. It was a heart to heart talk that this edu- 
cated leader had with the people of his country and 


his race> fired by patriotism strong with enthusiasm 
for the future of his people, who, loving freedom at 
home, are enjoying this same privilege in 'the land 
of the free and the home of the brave.* 

"Following the service the company left the hall, 
formed in line and to the music of the band and led 
by George Vassals of the committee, marched down 
Main street. It was an imposing sight. Directly 
following the leader came the Sacred Battalion, a 
platoon of young men bearing the American flag, the 
blue and white ensign of Greece and the banner of 
the Pan-Hellenic imion. Then marched the men of 
the race, in all, a band of 300 strong. A platoon of 
police acted as an escort.^ 

"Erect and with firm tread, in perfect step to the 
music, they moved along, not forgetting to recognize 
with bared head the American flag, that in anticipa- 
tion of the celebration had been displayed by citizens 
all along the route; nor the Greek flag that was dis- 
played wherever there were Greek homes or places 
of business. 

"The march was to Saco and up Main street as 
far as the soldiers' monument, where, encircling the 
memorial to a country's heroes, the entire company 
stood with uncovered heads while the band played 
'Star Spangled Banner' and the national air of Greece. 
The line of march was then towards Biddeford. 

"It was an object lesson to older as well as younger 
Americans and by the most dispassionate should not 
be soon forgotten. It was expressive of the same love 
for liberty that has marked the Greek race since the 
early Peloponnesian struggles. The spirit that under 
Miltiades won great victory over the Persians at Mara- 

2 This "American" escort were mostly French Canadians ! 


thon ; that stood at the pass of Thermopylse under the 
brave Leonidas. 

"Not only the recognition of the day but the coming 
of Mr. latros to the city will mean much for the local 
Greeks. Their organizations will now be fired by a 
deeper spirit of the true patriotism^ recognizing the 
truth of the fact brought out by this patriot and orator^ 
that the power to be of the best lies within themselves." 

I can vouch for the excellence of this account, 
for I was given a seat on the platform that day 
beside the dear old Greek priest, and had the 
pleasure of entertaining the k. latros that even- 
ing at dinner. It was worth while to look into 
that sea of intelligent faces during the oration, 
I wish I could have understood it. The k. latros 
told me afterwards that they usually got too 
much patriotism and too little practical common- 
sense advice, and that he tried to give them the 

Here is a translation of the Greek National 
Anthem, which every Greek in America and the 
world over knows and loves to sing. The original 
with its stirring music is given on the following 


"From thy fearful sword I know thee 
With its sharpened edge and bright; 
From the glance which as the lightning 
Spans the earth in length and height. 
From the sacred bones thou comest 
Of the brave that are no more. 





i j l J II 









£k YM* _ pi _ _ _ Cdl_icb t1|* Ktf . . <|a too 






T g i 

^ff ff-t^S't^ W 

. tlpO t{|v Tpe _ |U _ oil .^^_^_ £t vvut _ M 

■NA Ji 






£t fvu>_ p< - — — 


C-itb Tip* 

"^^I'L/U J I J ffn I jUt? ^ 

The Greek National Anthem. 

Kpa . « MJpn _. w - |ttf - ^^ 2Ut- pi«i ](aT _ p< i_Acu - (ic - pi^ 

U «kv 

icpa . xa Mfn — «* — |U — ^ XaT_ pt& }(al 

r rcL^- 


pctXtu- >«- p^. 



J j i' Lf l 







p^p- p i r p> M- i r Ji^. i ' i I'l l 


upa . w ivJ|pn . «* _ |i^ . 



3Car - pcw ^ 

ft tkn-Jt . pi^. 

pii jir? | j ^ 







ntMp«|i4vi|, ivtpoiMAi^, 
K'Vm 9t^ AMpnpeO«*«, 

.'Xprt( vSMii iHCtvi| ^ >^ 

TWA tfaMMJIl ^ fO^M, 

Th MfAi «itk K <p|i|rt;i 

K)rff«i(, «>MV*t, f«Mrt;. 

ltt« tk HXtfojidM loXb, 

Kal ((( tb ^m*x'' *** trtt^J^ 



Liberty^ we hail^ oh^ hail t&ee^ 
Ever valiant as of yore! 

"There in silent expectation 
Thou awaitest^ sad and shy^ 
Till a voice of hope and valor^ 
'Come again^' to thee should cry; 
But that day was far and distant; 
All was plunged in silence deep^ 
Crushed with terror^ awed with darkness^ 
And benumbed in slavery's sleep. 

"Thou, alas! for only comfort 
Hadst the splendor of past years. 
Calling back the deeds of glory 
And relating them with tears. 
Then awaiting, still awaiting. 
For a friendly freedom's call. 
In despair thy hands thou wringest. 
Weeping for thy bitter thrall. 

" *When, oh, when, will some one call me 
From the wilderness to rise.^' 
Sounds of chains and groans and clamors 
Was the answer to thy cries. 
Then to Heaven thou upraisedst 
A look dim with tearful flood — 
And upon thy robe were falling 
Drops of pure Hellenic blood." ' 

3 This translation, which follows the original metre, was 
made specially for this book by a Greek lady, Mrs. S. G. 
Canoutas, who had never been in England except for a few 
days, and had been in the United States (Boston) only a 
few months. It is a fine example of the thorough training 
in English taken by educated Greeks. 



The translation and the original given here are 
the first four verses only. Further on the poem 
tells of the final answer to Liberty's call, the rising 
of the Greeks which led to freedom. It was writ- 
ten at the time of the Greek Revolution. The 
Greek of the poem is not the purified modem Greek 
of the schools and newspapers, but the so-called 
^^vulgar'' dialect. 

Oh! what a glorious Independence Day was 
that of this very year, 191S, and celebrated with 
what fervor by the Greeks of America, though 
saddened by the recent death of good King 
Greorge! For Greece, all Greece, had just become 
free, nearly a century after the first partial free- 
dom. Crete, all Thessaly, Macedonia, the Is- 
lands, at last under the blue and white flag of 
Hellas, and Epiros too, where brave Constantine, 
the beloved new King, had just carried the last 
Turkish stronghold, Janina. 


Only a few years ago in beloved Hellas the 
Greeks now in America used to repair with the 
jolly throngs up the slopes of Argolis or climb 
to some craggy plateau about a chapel or mon- 
astery in Arcadia or Laconia, and there celebrate 
a Saint's day with feast and dance. Therefore 
here, too, in this foreign land the Greek loves to 
go on picnics. For example, the New York 
Greeks have a big picnic three or four times a 
year, on which many hundreds, often thousands. 


go. They hire a band — ^m Chicago they have a 
band of their own — and a boat, and sail to some 
resort with American and Greek flags flying. 
And there they play Greek and American games, 
and dance Greek dances, holding hands in a circle 
and cavorting about, and American dances too; 
and generally, like the Klephts of yore, they 
roast whole lambs on spits before an open fire, 
just as they used to do in Greece. 


Taking into account the conditions under 
which they live, the Greeks of America keep 
pretty faithfully three of the four great fasting 
seasons of the Church, viz., the Christmas Fast, 
(our Advent) which begins November 16th 
(Greek style) — 28th (Western style); the fast 
which begins two weeks before the Falling Asleep 
of the Holy Birth-giver of God (corresponding 
to the Western "Assumption") on August 16th 
— 28th; and the Great Fast (Lent), beginning 
on Monday (they have no Ash Wednesday) and 
lasting forty-eight days. The fourth fast is that 
before the Feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, June 
29th — July 12th, but it is not usually kept by 
them in America. The strictness of the fast is 
somewhat graded for different times, but it is 
infinitely more stringent than in western usage. 
It consists in abstinence from meat, eggs, butter, 
cheese, and sometimes from fish and even oil. The 
Greeks here, because of the hard conditions of 


their work, usually keep strictly in Lent proper 
only the first and last weeks. 

The four feasts above mentioned are the days 
of obligation for Holy Communion — or to speak 
more correctly, the seasons, as the Conununion 
is usually made during the preceding fasting sea- 
son. Thus the Easter Communion, which no 
good Orthodox fails in, is very rarely made on 
Easter Day itself, but some time during Lent, 
usually on the Saturday before or Palm Sun- 

From the best information I can get, though 
of course it is impossible to estimate accurately, 
about one-half of the Greek men in America make 
their fast, confession and Communion regularly 
at least for Easter, and this includes nearly all 
over 26 years of age. It is the youths who have 
become slack. This is, however, I think I may 
venture to state, a better showing than among 
those men in America, foreign and native, at the 
present time who were baptized in the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

The Greeks attend their church services, where 
they have them, I should say better than Episco- 
palians or Protestants. On certain days nearly 
all turn out: Easter, Holy Thursday and Good 
Friday evenings, Christmas, New Year; and very 
many, when they can get away from work, on 
the Epiphany, the Falling Asleep of the Theo- 
tokos, St. George's Day (May 23 — June 6) and 
also on the Sunday after Easter (called "St. 


Thomas' Sunday'* from the Gospel for the day, 
as are designated most of their Sundays). 

The Christmas Mass begins at midnight and 
lasts till about 2 :00 or 3 :00 a. m., when all go to 
the restaurants or home, and feast as at Easter. 

New Year's Day, not Christmas, is the day the 
Greeks give presents to each other.* 

Holy Week is filled with services, especially 
Great Thursday, Great Friday, and Great Sat- 
urday (to use the Greek names). At the Great 
Friday Matins, usually on Thursday evening, 
there are Twelve Gospels, relating the whole ac- 
count of our Lord's sufferings. The three Holy 
Week services that are fully attended are this, 
the Good Friday night service, and the Easter 
service the next midnight. These are the services 
which Americans should attend, if they wish to 
witness what the Greeks most love and celebrate 
with the greatest fervor. 

The Good Friday night service ^ is that of the 
Entombment of our Lord. That night all over 
the United States are crowded churches, or per- 
haps stuffy hired halls, everybody standing (the / 

4 Speaking of feast days, let us note that one of the 
great feasts of the Orthodox Church is that of the Trans- 
figuration. The Churches of Rome and England have prac- 
tically dropped this, but it has been restored in the American 

6 Properly this is the Easter Eve service and should begin 
at midnight, after Good Friday has passed; but as the 
Greeks in America have to go to work the next day, Satur- 
day, and be up all the next night, this service is usually / 
begun early Friday evening. 


/ Greeks never kneel or sit), with the flare of hun- 
dreds of tapers that everyone holds, the smoke 
of incense, the weird music in which all join from 
time to time. And the priest wanders smilingly 
about sprinkling everybody with scented water. 
In the midst stands a representation of the Holy 
Sepulcher,* a sort of canopied litter surmounted 
by candles and covered with flowers; and within 
is laid a little image of the Crucified. And the 
priest takes from the Altar the closely figured 
"winding-sheet'' and carries it about on his head 
and lays it in the tomb and on it the Book of the 
Holy Gospels. They pick up the Sepulcher and 
march around, all joining in the procession and 
singing of the Burial and Descent into Hell, of 
Joseph and the myrrh-bearing women. Properly 
this procession should be out of doors, but this 
is rarely feasible in America except at Tarpon 
Springs, Chicago, and some other places. 

But the service of services is that of Easter, 
the Feast of Feasts. It begins somewhat before 
midnight, when the beautiful Easter Canon is 
sung, with its opening canticle, familiar to us in 
Dr. Neale's translation: 

"The Day of Resurrection, 

£arth! tell it out abroad! 
The Passover of gladness! 

The Passover of God! 
From Death to Life Eternal, 

From this world to the sky, 

« See picture of Lowell Church. 


Our Christ hath brought us over. 
With hymns of victory." ^ 

As the stroke of midnight comes, the priest cries 
with a loud voice, "Christ is risen from the dead, 
trampling down Death by death, and upon those 
in the tomb bestowing life. Christos anSste!*^ 
(Xpiaros dvcoTf^ And the multitudes answer, 
"Aneste alethos" ( 'Avcorg^dAiy^ws) ; and all light 
their tapers from the three-branched candle of 
the priest and exchange with each other the East- 
er kiss and the Easter greeting. The Divine 
Liturgy is then celebrated with its fullest pomp. 
Afterwards the happy crowds throng out of the 
church and hasten to their festive restaurants — 
or to their homes, if they be so fortunate as to 
have them — and there they feast on lamb and 
sumptuous viands and eat the red-dyed eggs. For 
everyone is furnished with an egg^ and the feast- 
ing begins with the time-honored custom of each 
knocking his egg against that of his neighbor, 
saying at the same time the Easter greeting — the 
strongest egg gives its owner the best luck. And 
thus having broken their long fast, they sing and 
dance and laugh and carouse like happy children 
long after sunrise. On Easter afternoon also 
there is a short service to which many go. 

7 Neale translates the whole long Canon, but his works 
are out of print. Brownlie also has a complete translation, 
"Hymns of the Greek Church," pp. 67-78. Forty-one beauti- 
ful hymns found in the various church hymnals of England 
and America are translations from the Eastern Orthodox 
Service Books. 



The regular Sunday service of the Greeks in. 
America — ^and there is but one a Sunday — is the 
Divine Liturgy or Holy Eucharist. Let me de- 
scribe it.® 

I have often been told, and have read it, that 
the service is three hours long. This is not so. 
The Mass itself, sermon and all, is not more than 
an hour and a half. It is the singing that pre- 
cedes it that takes up another hour or so during 
which the worshipers come in, some at the begin- 
ning, some not till the actual Liturgy. Thus if 
you go to a Greek Liturgy and try to follow it in 
translation, don't try until, with an obvious break 
in the service, the Priest comes out of the central 
doors of the screen and chants sonorously : 

^^JSivXoyrjfUvrf i^ BocrtXcea rov Ilarpo?, icat rov Yeov, fcoi 
Tov aylov nvcv^Tos"( pronounced — ^Evlogheemenee ee 
vasileea tou Patros, kay tou Eeou, kay tou 
agheeou Nefmatos) and then you will hear the 
opening litany with the singers' and people's oft 
recurring response, "Kvptc cAciycrov" (Keeriee elay- 

The long chanting of the singers, monotonous 
to our ears, which always precedes the Liturgy 

8 I should strongly advise the reader to buy Campbell's 
little "Manual" (see Bibliography, Appendix B, IV), and 
attend a Liturgy himself. If he does so, he will be strongly 
impressed with what seems a lack of reverence. But let us 
remember that a Greek attending a service in a Protestant 
church in America, is also strongly impressed with what 
seems to him a lack of reverence. 


proper for an hour or so, is one of the eight 
"Tones'' which are sung in rotation on successive 
Sundays through the year, with special festal ad- 
ditions on feast days. Each "Tone'' is a long 
poetical composition formed of five hymns and a 
"Canon" of nine "Odes." » 

They tell in prose poetry of the glories of the 
Incarnation, the Cross, the Resurrection, of the 
Eternal Trinity, of the All-Holy Birth-giver of 
God, of sin and mercy, of death and eternal life. 

"Lull to tranquillity, 
Christ, Divine Lord, 
The sea storm-swept 

By my passions dread wave; 
As Thou art compassionate, 

Lead thou me forth, 
Forth from corruption, 
O Mighty to save. 
Glory to thy Resurrection, O Lord." 
(Tone V, 6th Ode of the Canon, Versified hy the 

You enter the Greek church, or mayhap the 
hired hall. The men, women, and children that 
pass through the porch step and kiss the gaudily 

» See Miss Hapgood's "Service Book," Appendix A, which 
gives translations of all the "Tones"; also Campbell's "Man- 
ual," pp. 60-64 and table to fhid them on the last page. Many 
of Neale's and Brownlie's metrical translations are from 
these "Tones," and their festal additions (See Bibliography, 
App. B, IV), and from these may be gained the best idea 
of their simple and exalted poetry and devotion. 


painted Eikon, take a little taper from the table, 
light it, and stick it in the candle stand, symbol 
of the offering of worship of each, and drop a 
piece of money in the plate. Within all are stand- 
ing — though they will kindly offer you a chair, if 
there be one, in appreciation of your western 
weakness. The singers at either end of the Eikon- 
painted screen which shuts off the sanctuary are 
chanting the long Tone. Behind the Eikon- 
screen, imseen, the Priest is preparing the elements 
and saying the office of the Prothesis (or Prepara- 
tion). At last he comes forth from the central 
doors in heavily embroidered vestments and begins 
the Liturgy. After a litany comes a series of an- 
tiphonal singing. ^^ And then from the left-hand 
door, preceded by an acolyte or two (probably 
unvested) with lighted candles^ the priest ad- 
vances, bearing the book of the Holy Gospels. As 
the service proceeds he carries it to the Holy Table 
and the Epistle is intoned by the Reader. Then, 
after much incense, the priest faces the people 
and sings the Gospel; after which he preaches, 
usually an exposition of the Gospel for the day. 
The next most obvious event in the service is, after 
a time, the Great Entrance, when again the pro- 
cession comes forth from the north door, with the 
Priest, carrying the veiled paten on his head 

10 The "Prayer of the Third Antiphon," said secretly by the 
priest, is our "Prayer of St. Chrysostom," so familiar to 
Anglicans at the end of Morning and Evening Prayer in our 
"Book of Common Prayer." 


and the chalice in his hand, and passes to the 

After more singing and a litany, one of the 
singers monotones the Symbol of the Faith, the 
Nicene Creed. 

Then, with the Holy Doors closed to veil the 
Divine Mystery, follows the Anaphora, the cen- 
tral part of the Mass with the Consecration of 
the bread and wine. I will not attempt to de- 
scribe further, save to say that therein is con- 
tained, just as in every Liturgy of the Holy Cath- 
olic Church, the same Sursum Corda and Preface 
and three-fold Sanctus, the same words of insti- 
tution, the Oblation, the Invocation of the Holy 
Spirit; and just before the Elevation of the Host 
and the Communion of the Priest is chanted the 
Lord's Prayer. 

If — often there are none — there are any com- 
munions made by the laity on the day you attend 
the Divine Liturgy, you will see the faithful ad- 
vance to the steps before the Altar, and after a 
low reverence receive from a spoon both Elements 
together, while a great colored cloth is held beneath 
the chin. At the last Greek Eucharist I attended, 
two families comprised the communicants, con- 
sisting of the fathers and mothers and two little 

At the end of the Liturgy the priest gives the 

11 The deacon should bear the paten, and should have an 
important part in the service; but there are no Greek deacons 
in America, as far as I know, so the priests have to sing 
the deacons' parts as well as their own. 


benediction, holding aloft a small cross. After 
this the people receive the "Antidoron." The dis- 
tribution of the Antidoron is a beautiful Orthodox 
custom. It is as follows: Only a part of the 
loaf or loaves, which are always of leavened bread, 
are cut out in the service of preparation and 
placed upon the paten to be consecrated. The 
rest is cut up by an acolyte into squares and 
placed upon a large tray. This tray is taken by 
the priest and held over the Consecrated Elements 
and blessed. Then at the end of the service these 
breads are distributed to all the people, or some 
are wrapped up in little pieces of paper and sent 
to the sick or to those who for other reasons were 
unable to be present. And all who receive the 
Antidoron must receive it fasting, just as they 
would if they were making their Communion. 
"Antidoron" means "instead of the gift." It is 
not, of course, sacramental, but it does convey a 


"A noteworthy feature of the service is the sound of 
the music which precedes and accompanies the Liturgy. 

12 This account, with the footnote and cut of the ancient 
Byzantine music, which is the music of the present Greek 
Church, was written for this chapter by Miss Marguerite 
Ogden, of Portland, Maine. It is a most extraordinary 
and difficult subject, practically unknown to Americans, 
and almost imwritten in the English language. In the 
preparation of this she consulted the following books: — 
"Etudes sur la Musique Ecclesiastique Greque," Bourgault- 
Ducoudray; "Traits de Psaltique," J. B. Rebours; "Metho- 
dus Cantus Ecclesiastic! Graeco-Slavici," Joanne de Cas- 


At first it strikes a musical ear as a weird and monotr 
onous wail always a little off the key. But as one 
grows accustomed to it, the very monotony becomes 
restful, almost hypnotic. The holding of one note, 
called the ison, by a part of the choir while the priest 
or chief singer carries a melody above it supplies a 
kind of rude harmony. The droning of the same 
note at times for ten or fifteen minutes, so peculiar 
to our ears, is intended to supply the singer with the 
tonic or starting note of the mode in which he is to 
chant. It also serves as would an organ to keep him 
on the key (no instruments are used in Greek wor- 
ship except occasionally a violin to give the pitch). 
In a well trained choir the ison is changed with skill 
and precision as the leading voice modulates from one 
key or mode to another. In some churches there are 
two divisions of the choir and only one book. A small 
boy between the two bears the book first to one side 
and then to the other as alternately they chant the 
words of the service or hold the ison. The impression 
conveyed of the singing being always off the key is 
owing to the fact that between a whole and half tone 
(the only intervals of which we take cognizance) there 
exists in Byzantine music such fine gradations as f of 
a tone, f of a tone, etc.^^ 

tro; "Hymns of the Eastern Church," 4th Edition with 
music, J. M. Neale; "'Ayeurrao-ifia rdptoy," Nikolaos G. 

13 "There are three kinds of scales in Greek music, the 
diatonic, enharmonic, chromatic. The first resembles a 
Gregorian tone, approximately our D minor scale; the en- 
harmonic cannot In practice be distinguished from the dia- 
tonic; the chromatic, most characteristically oriental and 
capable of expressing great piety Is somewhat such an 
effect as to play on the piano C, D flat, E natural, F, G, A 


"As you listen to a service you may discover that 
words are set to music in three distinct ways: there 
may be one note to one syllable^ two notes to one 
syllable^ or a whole melody sung to one syllable. The 
latter is used in chanting the Divine Liturgy^ and of 
it the following description is given by Joanne de Cas- 
tro: 'A certain Russian traveler assisted at the of- 
fice of the Feast of St. Andrew on the celebrated 
monastic peninsular of Mount Athos^ whose litur- 
gical order is most highly esteemed by the Greeks. The 
chief singer^ after he should have finished a certain 
canticle^ continued singing ten minutes in a lively and 
joyful voice "gd-gei-gei, etc./* and above it was heard 
the singing of the Troparia of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary. First would come two words of the latter; 
then incessantly^ constantly^ would issue forth for the 
space of ten minutes a labyrinth of trembling and flut- 
tering sound like a nightingale; and after two more 
words of the troparia the chief singer would return 
to the same ornament. So that one whole hour was 
consumed in the singing of this short troparia.' 

"The melodic beauties of this ancient Byzantine 
music have been so long unknown to the western world 
because they are written in neumes or signs instead 
of by staffs and notes. A casual glance at a service 
book in a Greek church would lead one to think that 
he had by chance opened a stenographer's notebook^ 
so much do the characters of this music written in 
neumes resemble the dots and dashes of shorthand. 

flat, B natural, C. There are eight modes which are some- 
what the equivalent in our music of scales played on dif- 
ferent notes, whereas diatonic, enharmonic, chromatic, rep- 
resent what would be the major or minor form of the 


There are no lines or staff signs^ as the music is all 
sung in unison^ and no notes of various shapes to give 
the absolute duration of time. The unit of time is a 
regular beating with the hand, a downward and up- 
ward stroke making one measure, as it were. This 
simple beat never varies, although the time relation 
of the various signs to each other is often quite com- 
plicated. Five different kinds of signs are employed 
in writing in neumes, — ^those indicating ascending in- 
tervals, descending intervals, measure, modulations of 
the voice, and the key signs called 'marturia,' which 
give the tonic or starting note of the music. For as 
these signs express only relative intervals and not def- 
inite pitch, they cannot be interpreted at all unless 
the singer begins at a key sign where the tonic of the 
mode in which he is to sing is given him. 

"Example I, The first line of Psalm 141, taken 
from the Service of Great Vespers, gives an idea of 
music written in neumes and the translation into west- 
ern notation. 'Echos' means tone. The sign look- 
ing like a 'g' with two dots over it signifies first tone 
and pa is the Greek syllable for our note re, indicating 
that the tonic of this tone is D above middle C. The 
first sign, called in Greek petaste, indicates that the 
voice mounts one step from the tonic D ; so this chant 
begins on the E above middle C. The next sign called 
apostrophes indicates that the voice descends one step. 
The third sign called ison indicates that the previous 
note is to be repeated. The fourth sign called oligon 
indicates one ascending step. In the fifth combination 
of two signs the lower one an oligon indicates another 
ascending step, while the little one above called klasma 
is a time sign and adds one beat to the note over which 


it u placed. The sixtii sign called vareia indicates 
that the following note is to be accented. 

''Example II is the music of a Gloria written in the 
8th tone or plagal of the 4th tone^ tonic on C^ taken 
from the TraitS de Ptdltique. The words are 'Father, 
Son and Holy Spirit, Trinity, consubstantial, not di- 
vided.' A peculiarity of these examples which can- 
not be represented in our notation is that in descend- 
ing the scale by the law of attraction certain notes 
are half flatted, that is in Ex. I the distance from 
mi to re is about three-quarters of a tone. 

"This music of the Greek Church, though in notation 
and interval quite different from that of the western 
world, should by no means be approached as a subject 
of fossil and remote interest. It not only adequately 
voiced the wonderful liturgies of the Christian Church 
during the years of their inception and growth, but is a 
living art to-^ay. It would reasonably seem that this 
music holds for the Western Church a wealth of mel- 
odic variety and rhythmic versatility impossible to the 
more rigid intervals and stricter mathematical divi- 
sions of time in the West. It is to be hoped that as the 
way opens for reciprocal influence between eastern and 
western musicians, the latter may be led to appreciate 
and absorb the delicacies of tone and the freedom of 
rhythm whereby the former are able to express shades 
of religious emotion as nicely as the Greek language 
has given subtle turns to Christian philosophic 


In the Fatherland each house had its house- 
hold Eikon — even the Greek ships have their 


Hvoq a. .ria. 




IT« re & pa. Yt ov xat 



'i -r- ^ V-r- ^ 

cro o oy 

\ fy \ .r? J J .J J -T^i J J ^ 

ifa - r£- pas, r<:-^>; xo^^ A — 7t-o 

-'7t-oy VLi/cu- 

Byzantine Musical Notation. 


Eikon of St. Nicholas. In like manner in Amer- 
ica in the homes of every Greek family and in the 
lodging houses where several Greeks live together, 
may be found the ever present Eikon, one or 
more. They are generally small and painted in 
bright colors and reverently framed. Perhaps 
the most common, especially the first, are: St. 
George (Patron Saint of Greece) Slaying the 
Dragon; the Panaghfa, the All Holy Virgin; the 
Christ; and the three Patriarchs, Saints Basil, 
Gregory, and John Chrysostom. Every Satur- 
day night and on the eve of a feast — in many 
households, every night — the little lamp is lighted 
before the Eikon — symbol of the intercession of 
the Church Triumphant for the Church Militant. 


Besides the regular public services, there are, of 
course, the various sacramental and other minis- 
trations in church and in the houses which the 
overworked Greek priests in America are contin- 
ually called out to attend, not only in their own 
parishes but, in the cases of baptisms, weddings, 
and funerals through all the region roundabout. 
The more important are: Holy Baptism with 
the accompanying Holy Chrismation (the equiv- 
alent of Confirmation) Holy Matrimony, the 
Churching of women forty days after the birth of 
a child, the blessing of houses, the visitation and 
Communion of the sick and dying, and the burial 
of the dead. The Greeks call in the priest (and 


they call him in for a good many things) just as 
they would call a doctor (indeed he is a doctor of 
souls), «ind they always pay a fee. In the case of 
weddings the guests make up a purse, as it were, 
which usually constitutes a most generous fee. 
The Greeks do not look upon their priests, as 
many Episcopalians do on theirs and Protestants 
on their ministers, as social gadabouts, from 
whom everybody expects a nice call and is mad if 
she or he doesn't get it, and especially if a body is 
ill the parson is expected to be telepathetically 
cognizant of the fact and is rarely sent for. No, 
the Greeks believe that a priest is ordained of God 
to administer from God realities of grace and ben- 
ediction. And although they may sometimes de- 
spise the man for his lack of education or his 
worldly-mindedness, they nevertheless respect the 
priest and treat him with the proper marks of 
courtesy, as doffing their hats, or rising when he 
enters the room. 

Let us describe two only of the special rites, 
weddings and funerals. The former occur some- 
where in the United States on every Sunday in the 
year and often week days, except during Lent; 
the latter will occur oftener in America as time 
passes onward. 


On the morning of the wedding (or the Sunday 
before, if it takes place on a week day, which is 
not usual) the Orthodox bride and groom al- 


ways receive Holy Communion. The marriage 
ceremony usually is performed in the afternoon in 
the bride's house or in the church. The wedding 
party marches to the church or house, headed by 
musicians playing oriental instruments. In the 
center of the room stands a table on which are 
placed the book of the Gospels, two rings and two 
crowns of wax or real flowers or of metal. The 
bride and groom are given lighted tapers to hold. 
The service, which is very ancient and perfect in 
its arrangement, consists of beautiful prayers 
filled with Scripture citations, and litanies and 
festal responses, with the 128th Psalm, an Epistle 
and Gospel,^* and the following symbolic cere- 
monies: "The Rings," which the priest, after 
signing the heads of the bride and groom, places 
upon the right hand of each and then the para- 
nymphos (bridesman or "friend of the bride- 
groom," representing the father) exchanges them 
thrice; "The Coronation" — the priest places the 
crowns on the heads, as they stand with little fin- 
gers united, and the paranymphos immediately ex- 
changes them; "The Common Cup" of blessed 
(not consecrated) wine, of which both partake. 
And then they march round the table, the para- 
nymphos holding the crowns on from behind. 
Finally the priest takes off the crowns and blesses 
the couple and they kiss each other, and the 
friends and relations congratulate them, and kiss 
— not the happy pair, but the crowns ; and every- 
"Ephesians 5:20-33 and St John 2:1-12. 



one receives a little box or bag stamped with the 
names of the groom and bride and containing a 
special nuptial kind of colored candies about the 
size and shape of a small bird's egg. This latter 
Greek custom is, of course, not found in the ru- 
brics : it seems to be the equivalent of our wedding 
cake. Sometimes other customs take its place. 
The wedding feast usually is spread, not at the 
bride's home, but at that of the groom, if he have 
one ; and as the pair enter the house the mother of 
the groom, and only she or the nearest woman rela- 
tive, throws rice upon them. 

Holy Matrimony to the Greek, as they are 
taught at home and in their catechism at public 
school, is a very solemn sacrament, sanctifying 
and giving grace for the perfecting of the indis- 
soluble and most sacred of human relationships. 
Nor does their service fail, as do our English serv- 
ices, in frequent prayers for fair children as the 
longed-for fruit of the union. Divorce is almost 
VJ unknown among the Greeks. The terrible laxness 
of the marriage tie in America and the equally 
terrible curtailment of offspring among "civilized" 
Americans, shock the Greek when he comes here. 

Here is the beautiful prayer just before the 
Coronation, and during which the hands are 

"0 Holy God, who didst form man out of the dust, 
and of his rib didst raise up woman, and join her to 
him as a helpmeet for him, for so it pleased thy 


Majesty that man should not be alone upon the earth: 
do Thou Thyself now, O Lord, stretch forth Thy 
hand from Thy holy dwelling place, and join together 
Thy servant (N) and Thy handmaid (N) for by 
Thee is woman joined unto man. Unite them in har- 
mony of mind; wed them into one flesh; and grant 
them the fruit of the womb, the joy of good children. 
For Thine is the might, and Thine is the kingdom, 
and the power and the glory. Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, now and ever, and unto ages of ages, amen." 


When the Greek dies here, a stranger in a 
strange land, his church performs the last rites, 
in the church building, if there be one, with 
wondrously solemn service: filled with hymns, sad 
and beautiful, telling of earthly vanity and sor- 
row, and rest and Paradise, and the oft recurring 
petition for the repose of the soul of the departed. 
In the church, feet to the Altar and the east, is 
the open coffin, an Eikon of the Savior in the dead 
hand, four candlesticks standing crosswise about 
the bier. All hold lighted tapers. At the end 
of the service the priest, and sometimes others, 
makes an oration, and then the ^4ast kiss" is 
given, all filing by and stooping to kiss the dead. 
And at the grave, with chant and prayer, includ- 
ing the Lord's Prayer, the priest strews crosswise 
a shovelful of dust, and sprinkles wine and oil and 
ashes from the censer. There is a separate serv- 
ice, a most beautifully pathetic one, for the burial 
of a little child, and also one for the burial of a 


priest. Here is the closing part of the long final 
hymn in the service for the burial of laymen, 
chanted while the last kiss is being given.* '^ 


Behold and weep me^ friends and brethren! 

Voice^ sense^ and breathy and motion gone; 
But yesterday I dwelt among you; 

Then death's most fearful hour came on. 

"£mbrace me with the last embracement; 
Kiss me with this^ the latest kiss; 
Never again shall I be with you; 
Never with you share woe or bliss. 



I go before the dread tribunal 

Where no man's person is preferr'd; 

Where lord and slave, where chief and soldier. 
Where rich and poor alike are heard: 

One is the manner of their judgment; 

Their plea and their condition one; 
And they shall reap in woe or glory 

The earthly deeds that they have done. 

"I pray you, brethren, I adjure you, 

Pour forth to Christ the ceaseless prayer. 
He would not doom me to Gehenna, 
But in his glory give me share!" 

15 Translated literally by Dr. Neale. 


It IS necessary to insert here a chapter explain- 
ing definitely just what this church of the Greeks 
is, for the simple reason that the majority of 
Americans, educated as well as uneducated, have 
very vague and erroneous notions about it. 
Americans are apt to divide all Christianity into 
two parts. Catholic (meaning Roman Catholic) 
and Protestant. And here is the bewildering phe- 
nomena of a great church which claims to be and 
is neither; whose members hate the Pope as much 
as any Presbyterian and who would laugh at you 
if you called them Protestant — ^why, the East- 
ems call the Pope "the first great Protestant." 
Yet the Holy Eastern Orthodox Church (the 
Greek Church is only a part of it and not the cor- 
rect title for the whole), which has already hun- 
dreds of thousands of her children in America, 
comprises in all over 120,000,000, or about one 
quarter of all the Christians in the world. 
Whence came this great section of Christianity, 
and how do the Eastern Orthodox regard their 
church and the rest of Christendom? 

If I were to attempt a sketch of ecclesiastical 

history, it would be surely accused of Anglican 

bias. Therefore let us view the history of Chris- 



tianlty from the eyes of the Orthodox themselves. 
The following is a literal translation of a very 
simple and excellent outline of ecclesiastical his- 
tory by the Greek priest of Lynn, Massachusetts, 
the Rev. Theophilos Spiropoulos, and it ex- 
presses what all Orthodox believe and teach. He 
wrote it especially for me at the k. Canoutas' re- 
quest, though at the time he thought it was to be 
published in Greek for Greek readers — ^which mis- 
conception makes it all the more valuable, as he 
is not trying to impress Americans. I might add 
that except for his partial misunderstanding of 
the Reformation in England, and so of the Angli- 
can position, which is really identical in most re- 
spects with his own, his account is practically the 
same as any well informed AngUcan priest would 
write. But you cannot blame him for misunder- 
standing the Anglican position, when a good many 
Anglicans, or as they are called in America, Epis- 
copalians, do not understand it themselves.^ 

**The Church is the communion of all those believ- 
ing in Christ, founded by the Savior Christ Himself 
and his Apostles. The function of the Church is to 
spread to the world through her organs the proclama- 
tion of the Gospel, to spread abroad everywhere the 
principles of the Christian religion, and to mould 

1 1 wish to acknowledge with gratitude the work of trans- 
lating this, which was done by Mr. Ralph W. Brown, of 
Boston, a Harvard graduate, formerly on the staff of a 
Greek newspaper in Boston. He also transcribed the orig- 
inal script on his Greek typewriter. 


men according to them. The Church accomplishes 
this work by three means: by the proclamation of the 
Gospel^ by worship and by sacraments or mysteries^ 
and by the religious training in general of the people. 

"The Apostles having received the order from the 
Savior Christ to spread abroad to the world His teach- 
ing (Matthew 28:19)^ accomplished this command 
with zeal and self-sacrifice; for being scattered from 
Palestine throughout the world with the Apostle Paul 
who had turned to Christianity^ they established 
everywhere in the Roman Empire^ which then in- 
cluded almost all the known worlds very many 
churches^ which became the chief centers^ and from 
which later on^ Christianity spread to all lands. 

"But this spreading of the Christian religion^ which 
continued to be waged even after the death of the 
Apostles by their successors^ took place not without 
strife and sacrifice. Throughout the first three cen- 
turies^ the Church, wrestling with the Gentile world 
breast to breast and undergoing most fearful perse- 
cutions, came forth, by the help of the Most High, 
triumphant from this struggle. The first to accept 
Christianity were the Greeks, then the Romans and 
the Syrians, and after these little by little the other 
peoples of Europe: An^o-Saxons, Germans, English, 
Franks, Goths, Danes, Swedes, Norwegians, Dutch, 
won over by the Western Church; and the Slavic peo- 
ples, Russians, Moravians, Bohemians, Dalmatians, 
Croatians, Servians, Bulgarians, won over to Chris- 
tianity by the Greek Church.* And about 900 A. D., 
nearly all Europe was Christian. 

2 Cyril and Methodius are the famous names of the two 
Greek missionaries who began the conversion of the Slavs 
and invented the Slavic alphabet. 


"Since the year 313^ under Constantine the Great, 
the persecutions had ceased and peace reigned in the 
Church. During this epoch Christianity takes on its 
first complete development. In this period^ the 
Churchy taking its occasion from the perverted teach- 
ing of the heretics then appearing (Arians, Nestori- 
ans^ Eutychians^ Monotheletes^ etc.)^ formulates more 
exactly and more in detail the dogmas of Christianity^ 
and by the first Ecumenical Councils puts on a more 
perfect basis the affairs of administration and wor- 
ship. This epoch, especially the fourth century and 
the first half of the fifth century, is the golden age 
of the Church, because during it the Church was 
made brilliant by the most illustrious Greek ecclesi- 
astical Fathers and writers, Basil, Athana^ius, the 
two Gregorys, Chrysostom and others. This epoch 
has momentous meaning for the Eastern Orthodox 
Church, because all her dogmatic, liturgical and ad- 
ministrative structure is based upon the principles of 
the Ecumenical Councils and the unanimous teaching 
of the Fathers. A final strife which appeared in the 
so far united Church was that called forth on the part 
of the Iconoclasts. But by the last Ecumenical Coun- 
cil (7th) the Church in the year 787 decided that the 
simple honor of the images of the martyrs and the 
saints of the Church is allowable and indeed incum- 
bent, in order that their memory be kept vivid and at 
the same time their virtue be honored by Christians. 
This final strife of the Iconoclasts, as also the strifes 
which appeared arising from the constitution of the 
Church, occasioned by different dogmatic reasons, had 
no great significance, and the Church was one, and 
all the Christians were united. 

"It is true that the development of the Eastern and 


the Western Church, from the first centuries on, was 
different in teaching, administration and worship. 
Starting from the ninth century, there commenced to 
spread in the west the teaching about procession of 
the Holy Spirit 'and from the Son' (filioque) while 
the Church in the East remained in the teaching of 
the creed of the two first Ecumenical Councils. Like- 
wise there existed a difference in the teaching 'about 
the relation of grace toward human liberty in the 
work of the regeneration of man.' Likewise there 
existed differences also in worship between the 
churches of the East and of the West. All these dif- 
ferences, however, did not give birth to schism, but 
only prepared the way for it. / 

"During the ninth century, however, there occurred 
the schism between Easterns and Westerns, which 
from that time forth separated the Western from the 
Eastern Christian world. The Pope and the West- 
ems split off from the Orthodox Church. The Pope 
was first to give the cause, who being possessed by 
measureless ambition, as Bishop of the ancient capital 
of the Roman empire, Rome, wished to impose (ob- 
trude) himself upon the whole church arbitrarily, as- 
serting and calling himself successor of Peter, and 
in consequence ruler of all the Church. It is to be 
noted, however, that one never reads in the New 
Testament that Peter orders around the other apos- 
tles; on the contrary, he was chidden by Paul (Gala- 
tians 2:11). Christ did not give to Peter only the 
keys of the kingdom, but also to the other apostles 
(Matthew 18:18); and in saying 'Rock on which He 
founded the church' (Matthew 16:18) Christ meant 
faith in Him, and not Peter at all. And it is en- 
tirely uncertain whether the apostle Peter even went 


to Rome; from the New Testament nothing of the 
sort appears ; consequently on no gromid can the Pope 
be regarded as successor of Peter. Likewise it is to 
be noted that the ancient churches of the first nine 
centuries in the different lands were autocephalous 
and independent^ and their relation to each other was 
a relation of brother churches^ self-sufficient and free. 
They simply rendered honors to the Bishops of Rome 
and of C(mstantinople^ because these two cities were 
the capitals of the Roman empire. 

"And it is indeed true that the western peoples^ 
being then barbarous and uncivilized^ since they got 
Christianity from Rome^ readily bowed to the arbi- 
trary claims of the Pope; but i^e Greek churches of 
the East^ which in development surpassed the Roman 
Churchy could not be subjected to the high-handed- 
ness of the Pope. Thence came on the schism. 

"The occasion of the outbreak of the schism was 
afforded by the overthrow, in the year 857 under 
Michael III, of the Patriarch Ignatius and the rais- 
ing to the patriarchal throne of Constantinople of 
Photius. In Constantinople at that time the bishops 
were divided into friends and enemies of Photius. 
The then Pope of Rome, Nicholas I,* a man over- 
ambitious, taking advantage of the division in Con- 
stantinople, intervened arbitrarily, wishing to impose 
Ignatius as Patriarch of the East. The majority of 
the eastern bishops at that time, in many synods, de- 
clared for Photius and rejected the arbitrary inter- 
ventions of the Pope. The Pope Nicholas moreover, 
acting very high-handedly, excommunicates Photius. 
The Easterns reject flatly the mizing-in of the Pope, 

8 The first Pope to make use of the Forged Isodorian 


and protest against his arrogant intervention. Thus 
were broken off the relations between the two churches 
and the schism began which definitively was accom- 
plished in the year 1054 under Patriarch of Constan- 
tinople Michael Cerularius.^ 

"The Papal Church, thenceforth cut off from the 
£astem Church, fell into many pieces; for having 
abandoned the ancient Christianity to which the East- 
ern Church remained faithful, she changed every- 
thing. And in the first place she changed the con- 
stitution of the Church; for having taken away 
the independence and self-government of the local 
churches of the western lands, she instituted the sys- 
tem of papal despotism, concentrating in the hands 
of the Pope unlimited authority. Besides this she 
accepted many new dogmas, such as the procession 
'and from the Son' of the Holy Spirit, sprinkling in 
baptism, the depriving of the laity of the holy wine 
in the Eucharist, the immaculate conception of the 
Virgin Mother, and the infallibility of the Pope. 
And in many other things the Western Church made 
innovations, such as in the compulsory celibacy of the 
clergy of all the grades, as also in the imposition in 
worship of the dead Latin language upon all peoples. 
Little by little the high-handedness of the Pope 
reached such a point that he wished to enslave even 
the emperors and kings of the West; and through the 
celebrated courts of the Holy Inquisition, which the 
wickedness of the Pope and his tools devised, thou- 
sands of men as alleged heretics were burned at the 

"On account of these great errors of the Western 

4 When the haughty papal legates deposited upon the 
Altar of St. Sophia a fierce anathema. 


Churchy there arose during the 16th century the so- 
called Protestants^ under the leadership of Luther 
in Germany (1517) and of Zwingli and Calvin in 
Switzerland^ who broke off from the Western Church. 
But these men again^ who so powerfully protested 
against the errors (excesses) of the Western Church, 
in fleeing these were reduced to opposite exaggera- 
tions and excesses; for they rejected not only the tra- 
ditions of later origin of the Western Church, but 
also all the ancient traditions of Christianity, and 
held Holy Scripture alone as source of the Christian 
teaching, which each interprets as he wills. They 
stripped worship bare, abolishing the most ancient 
ceremonies (sacraments), casting the images from 
their temples which had adorned them from most an- 
cient times. In general the great liberty which from 
the very start distinguished the Protestant Church 
became a ground for it to be divided into myriad 
branches, mutually contending and not recognizing 
one another, thus sacrificing order to liberty, as the 
Westerns sacrificed liberty to order. Out of all the 
branches of the Protestant Church, an exception is 
formed by the Episcopal Church, which does not 
hesitate to recognize and to confess the excesses 
and exaggerations of the Protestant Church. This 
church has remained from the first very friendly in 
her inclinations toward the Eastern Orthodox Church, 
confessing that the Eastern Orthodox Church has 
maintained the ancient Christianity purer than any 
other church, and desiring unity with her. This atti- 
tude in the Episcopal Church is not unexpected and 
inexplicable, because this church, even after the ref- 
ormation of the 16th century preserving the institution 
of Holy Orders and many other Catholic elements 


in her worship^ approaches more closely to the East- 
em Orthodox Church than any other Protestant 
Church, even standing in a certain sense midway be- 
tween the Protestant Church and the Eastern Ortho- 

The Holy Eastern Orthodox Church at the' 
present day is divided into fifteen different parts, 
each autocephalous (having its own head), or in- 
dependent of the other, yet with full intercom- 
munion and exact correspondence in doctrine, dis- 
cipline, and worship. It is like the Anglican Com- 
munion with its 30,000,000 divided into the inde- 
pendent churches of England, Scotland, Ireland, 
America, Canada, Australia, China, etc. And as 
these give honor and precedence to the Primate 
Archbishop of Canterbury so do all the Orthodox 
churches in a somewhat like sense give honor to the 
Patriarch of Constantinople. The fifteen inde- 
pendent parts are : the four ancient Patriarchates 
of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Je- 
rusalem; the national churches of Russia, Monte- 
negro, Greece, Servia, and Bulgaria; the ancient 
Metropolitan Church of Cyprus ; the Archbishop- 
ric of Mount Sinai; and the three independent 
Metropolitanates in Austria-Hungary. In Amer- 
ica there are people and clergy from nearly all 
these Orthodox branches. But alas, the political 
rancor between Slav and Greek have thus far made 
cooperation between these two elements impos- 

The services of the Eastern Orthodox Church 


are sung and read in the living languages under- 
stood by the people — Grjeek, Slavonic, Arabic, 
Roumanian, numerous Tartar dialects, Japanese, 
etc., etc. — ^sometimes even in English. The Bible 
has never been a closed book. The mighty Rus- 
sian Church has had for years splendid missions 
throughout Siberia, in Alaska and Japan, and 
elsewhere. The Greek Church has done much in 
philanthropic and educational work throughout 
the Turkish Empire. The laymen always take 
a very important part in church organization. 

Religious toleration is everywhere allowed, 
if it dbes not actively interfere with the national 
church. But the Orthodox have learned to look 
askance at Proftestant proselytism and Roman 
propaganda. For American Protestants to try 
to proselytize the Eastern Orthodox Christians 
here in America is not only an almost impossible 
task, but also totally wrong and unchristian. 

The ancient Church of the East though trodden 
down and maimed by centuries of persecution, 
has a glorious past, is a living church to-day, and 
has before her a mighty future. 



In this and the three following chapters we 
will try to localize, and so vivify, what we have de- 
scribed in the previous chapters by portraying 
some of the typical Greek colonies of America. 
Let us take first the life of the Greeks in the great 
cities, and as typical of this, that largest of all 
the Greek settlements of our country, Chicago. 


Probably the correct estimate of the Greek pop- 
ulation of the metropolis of the West is 20,000. 
The numbers vary in winter and summer with the 
coming and going of the railroad laborers. Let 
us quote first from Canoutas' "Greek-American 
Guide," (pp. 391-898), translating literally. 

"Before 1882 there were a small number of Greeks 
in Chicago. These organized^ with some Slavs^ the 
'Helleno-Slavic Brotherhood/ which later was called 
the 'Good Deed Brotherhood/ and invited a certain 
Greek priest^ a graduate of a Russian school^ to cele- 
brate the Divine Liturgy. After 1882 more Greeks 
immigrated to Chicago^ and by 1891^ when their num- 
ber had reached 100^ they organized a society under 
the name of 'Therapnean Society' [afterwards was 

called 'Lycurgos'l, the object of which was the es- 



tablishment of a Greek church. Through the effi- 
cient work of this society a priest was asked for from 
Greece^ and the Rev. P. Phiampolis came and re- 
mained there till 1898^ when he went to Boston as 
pastor of that community. After this there were 
some other priests appointed^ and in 1894 were sent 
the reverent and learned Archimandrites Leon Pegeas 
and Ambrosios Mandelares^ both graduates of our na- 
tional university. The first church building of their 
own was erected in 1898 under the presidency of the 
k. K. Loumos^ 'Holy Trinity,' 1101 Johnson Street. 
Unhappily, this church was changed from a house of 
God to a nucleus of strife, wrangles, and legal con- 
tests, lasting for almost a decade, because of the jeal- 
ousy of different parties as to who should be presi- 
dent and vice-president and all the rest of it! Thou- 
sands of dollars were wasted in the American courts 
by the various committees on matters of but transi- 
tory importance; often the police were called in to 
prevent fighting and bloodshed in this church build- 
ing between those striving for the first places; and 
frequently the American press published articles on 
the subject that were not at all complimentary. Hap- 
pily, order was restored at last in this great Greek 
colony by the establishment of two more churches, 
and the division of the whole colony into three sec- 
tions. The first division or parish attend the old 
church, which remains under the pastorship of the 
Rev. Leon Pegeas. The second division or parish, 
made up of the compatriots living in the southern 
part of the city, attend the newly built church of St. 
Constantine (6100 Michigan Avenue), which is un- 
der the pastorship of the Rev. Ambrosios Mandelares. 
The third parish, made up of those in the north and 

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northwest part, attend the stately church of The An- 
nunciation^ also newly built on LaSalle Avenue, Nos. 
101 7-101 9, which is under a third pastor, at first the 
Rev. Const. Nicoletopoulos, now the Rev. Charitos 

In Chicago there are some twenty-odd local so- 
cieties and a branch of the Pan-Hellenic Union. 
This city has the largest number of Greek busi- 
ness concerns of any city in America, especially 
confectioners, fruit stores, and restaurants. 
There are ten Greek physicians, two dentists, two 
pharmacies, a Greek bank, several lawyers and two 
newspapers — a bi-weekly of six pages, Athena, 
and a ten-page weekly. Star. A proportion of 
the Greeks of Chicago, remarkably large consider- 
ing the short residence of the majority, have be- 
come naturalized. 

For the rest of the account of the colony in 
Chicago, I cannot possibly do better than give, 
with the kind permission of the author, an abridg- 
ment of '*A Study of the Greeks in Chicago," 
which appeared in the American Jourvkil of So- 
ciology of November, 1909, by Miss Grace Abbott, 
Director of the League for the Protection of Im- 
migrants, one of the few people in America who 
have an accurate and sympathetic knowledge of 
the Greek immigrants. It has also been pub- 
lished in pamphlet form by the League (Series 
1, No. 3.) 

"Appreciating that its immediate neighborhood was 


becon^g Hellenic^ an investigation of the Greeks in 
Chicago was made by Hull House ^ in order that with 
reliable information about their housing conditions^ 
their occupations^ their family life^ and their am- 
bitions^ the resources of the House could be made 
more useful to its new neighbors. For this purpose^ 
in a preliminary investigation made last summer 
(1908)^ 350 Greek residences were visited and 1467 
Greeks counted on the schedules. These were not 
confined to any one neighborhood^ but were represent- 
ative of the city's entire Greek population^ the 
wealthier as well as the poorer. During the winter 
and spring a Greek-speaking woman was employed 
by Hull House to do systematic visiting among the 
Greek families of its neighborhood and among the 
Greek boys of th|e downtown district. Upon the in- 
formation thus secured by Hull House this study is 
almost entirely based. 

"The largest settlement of Chicago Greeks is in 
the nineteenth ward^ north and west of Hull House. 
Here is a Greek Orthodox Church; a school in which 
children are taught a little English^ some Greeks much 
of the achievements of Hellas and the obligation that 
rests on every Greek to rescue Macedonia from the 
Turks and the Bulgarians; here^ too^ is the combina- 
tion of Greek bank^ steamship ticket office^ notary 
public^ and employment agency; and the coffee houses^ 
where the men drink black coffee, play cards, specu- 
late on the outcome of the next Greek lottery, and in 
the evening sing to the accompaniment of the Greek 

1 Miss Jane Addams, who kindly furnished a copy of 
this pamphlet and referred me to its author, wrote me, 
**A number of Greeks come to Hull House, where they have 
various clubs and undertakings, and we are quite devoted 
to them." 


bag-pipes or — evidence of their Americanization — lis- 
ten to the phonograph. On Halsted Street^ south of 
Harrison^ almost every store for two blocks has Greek 
characters on the windows; and recalling one's long 
forgotten college Greeks one learns that the first cof- 
fee house is the 'Cafe AppoUon/ and that their news- 
paper^ The Hellas, is published next door. A block 
west^ on Blue Island Avenue one finds the 'Parthenon 
Barber Shop' and a Greek drug store. If an Amer- 
ican were to visit this neighborhood on the night of 
Good Friday when the stores are draped with purple 
and blacky and watch at midnight the solemn proces- 
sion of Greek men march down the streets carrying 
their burning candles and chanting hymns^ he would 
probably feel as though he were no longer in Amer- 
ica; but after a moment's reflection he would say that 
this could be no place but America^ for the procession 
was headed by eight burly Irish-American policemen 
and along the walks were 'Americans' of Polish^ Ital- 
ian^ Russian^ Jewish^ Lithuanian^ and Puritan an- 
cestry watching with mingled reverence and curiosity 
this celebration of Good Friday; while those who 
marched were homesick and mourning because 'this 
was not like the Tripolis.* 

"Although the Greeks have scattered much more 
widely over the entire country than the Italians and 
most other immigrants^ still they are little known or 
understood. They have suffered both here and in 
Europe from extravagant praise or unreasonable criti- 
cism. Before the Civil War, in the days when the 
Native American or Know Nothing Party flourished, 
many good Americans were afraid that the immigrants, 
who then came principally from Germany and north- 
em Europe, were going to destroy our institutions and 


ideals^ and there was organized opposition to their 
admission. Now the fear is that^ because the immi- 
grants are coming from southern and eastern Europe^ 
those prophecies of sixty years ago are about to be 
fulfilled. The average American, expecting every 
Greek to have the beauty of an Apollo and the ability 
of a Pericles, and reading only sensational newspaper 
accounts of some crime he may or may not have com- 
mitted, concludes that the race has degenerated and 
constitutes a most undesirable addition to our popula- 
tion. This is manifestly unfair. The Greek immi- 
grant should be accepted for what he is worth in 
modem society. And we should inquire not only as 
to his moral standards, his capacity for self-govern- 
ment and his economic value, but, equally important, 
whether his development in these directions is being 
promoted or retarded by the treatment he receives in 
the United States. 

"The only way of measuring the morality of a peo- 
ple is by the very low test of their criminality. For 
this the only statistics available are the records of the 
courts, police departments, and penal institutions. 
These need most careful interpretation. Classifica- 
tions are usually very carelessly made and do not dis- 
tinguish between American of native and foreign 
parentage, so that no conclusions can be drawn as to 
the effect which residence in the United States has 
upon the conduct of the foreigner. It should also be 
remembered that the immigrant's offence is too often 
only his ignorance of the English language, which to 
an irritated Irish policeman is in itself a crime. Vio- 
lations of city ordinances through ignorance of sani- 
tary regulations, of the requirement of a license for 
peddlers, and of similar regulations, cause more ar- 


rests than viciousness. The newly arrived foreigner 
must speak through an interpreter^ and a careless 
translation often gives the court an incorrect idea of 
what has been said. The testimony of the witnesses 
against him^ and occasionally the charge^ are not trans- 
lated to him^ and so he is unable to appreciate the full 
bearing of the questions asked him^ and his chances 
for acquittal are fewer than the American's. The re- 
port of the Commissioner General of Immigration for 
1908 shows that 15,323 aliens were detained in various 
penal and reformatory institutions of the United 
States. Of this number 196 were Greeks. In the 
north central group, which includes Illinois and eleven 
other states, 40 Greeks and 2570 other aliens are re- 
ported so detained. These figures undoubtedly do not 
give the number of alien criminals for the entire year, 
but they seem incredibly small even for any one 
time of the year, when it is remembered that they in- 
clude alien adult and juvenile offenders held in mu- 
nicipal, county, state, and federal institutions. In 
Chicago those Greeks who go out to work on the rail- 
roads from April to November and spend four or five 
months in idleness in the city, although not counted in 
the official census, are probably the ones who are found 
most frequently in the municipal courts, charged with 
disorderly conduct. The fact that so many of the 
Greeks are independent peddlers and merchants in- 
stead of employees in some large factory is in part 
some explanation of their difficulties. Hotheaded and 
independent, they are, like the Irishman, drawn into 
disputes which often end in serious quarrels. Un- 
doubtedly their criminal record in America is worse 
now than it will be in the future. The Greek is one 
of the last to come into this complex population of 


ours and the colony as a whole is still ignorant of our 
language and customs. The young men and boys 
have been coming in large numbers during the past 
eight years^ and women are following as the men 
graduate from work on the railroads to the proprietor- 
ship of a fruit stand or restaurant. Still a very large 
proportion of the Greeks are men between the ages 
of twenty and thirty — the sex and age of the greatest 
criminality in all nationalities. This very large pro- 
portion of men makes the life of the Greek colony en- 
tirely different from that of a people who have been 
coming for the last thirty or forty years. The men 
who are here alone must live together in large groups^ 
without the restraining influences which come with 
normal family relationships. Certainly this would 
account for much of the inmiorality with which Greek 
men have been charged. In this respect they are 
worse than at home^ due probably to the demoralizing 
effect which living in a city's congested district^ where 
invitations to vice are on every side and where there 
is no counter claim or attraction of a home^ always has 
on men or women. The most hopeful sign is that 
the Greeks who have been in the country for some 
time are coming to appreciate this and are trying to 
make their fellow-countrymen realize the danger which 
the situation presents. 

"Considered from other standpoints^ the Greek is 
a most desirable immigrant. With the political train- 
ing he has had at home^ he should be able to adapt 
himself quickly to our republican institutions. In- 
dustrially he is a positive asset in the United States. 

"Because the colony is so largely masculine^ large 
numbers of the men live together, keeping house on 
some cooperative arrangement, and form what may be 


called 'non-family groups' to distinguish them from 
the ordinary 'family group* in which the wife or 
daughter does the housekeeping for the family and a 
lodger or two. Three-fourths, at least, of the la- 
borers and peddlers belong to these non-family groups, 
while probably nearly the same proportion of the 
owners of ice cream parlors and restaurant keepers 
belong to the family groups. This shows very clearly 
how the system works. Like other foreigners, most 
of the Greeks must first serve an apprenticeship in 
the gangs that do the railroad and general construc- 
tion work for the country. But their apprenticeship 
is shorter than with most nationalities. A labor agent, 
who supplies two or three thousand foreigners a sea- 
son for this sort of work, says that the Greek seldom 
'ships out' more than once or twice. In that time he 
has learned some English and has accumulated enough 
money to venture on a small commercial enterprise 
for himself. He becomes a peddler, perhaps later 
owns a fruit stand and finally an ice cream parlor. 
By this time he is ready to send for his wife and chil- 
dren, or some Greek woman who becomes his wife, 
and they are able to live comfortably and happily. 
During the short time he has been in Chicago the 
Greek has established his reputation as a shrewd busi- 
ness man. On Halsted Street they are already say- 
ing, 'It takes a Greek to beat a Jew.' Historically 
there is, of course, some reason for this. Mahaffy, 
an authority on ancient as well as modern Greece, 
says of the Greeks: 'They are probably as clever a 
people as can be found in the world, and fit for any 
mental work whatever. This they have proved, not only 
by getting into their hands all the trade of the east- 
ern Mediterranean, but by holding their own perfectly 


among English merchants in England.' ^ That they 
will become greAt business and professional men in 
the United States there can be little donbt. They 
come^ willing to do any kind of hard physical work^ 
but thriftily take advantage of every opportunity for 

"The testimony of those experienced in teaching 
immigrants is always favorable to the Greeks. The 
teacher of the 'adult room' of the Jones School^ which 
is Just outside the loop in the downtown district^ had 
81 Greeks enrolled in 1908-09 out of a total of 252. 
She said of all the different nationalities represented 
in the room 'I think I have found the Greeks the 
brightest and quickest to learn.' At Hull House they 
have been eager and intelligent members of the regu- 
lar classes and the men have shown ability in the or- 
ganization and management of large clubs and classes 
for themselves. 

"The patriotism of the Greek is one of his most 
prominent characteristics and takes very often the ex- 
ceedingly boastful form usually credited to 'Yankees' 
in English novels. They are always ready to tell you 
of the superiority of the Greek soldier over any other, 
and the men who have been to college in Greece speak 
of American schools and American scholarship with 
almost German contempt. A small Greek boy was 
sure that he won the affection of his Irish school- 
teacher by showing her pictures of *the Athens.' Most 
of them feel it their duty to spread the fame of their 
noble race wherever possible. Approving of Hull 
House, they succeeded in convincing the Bulgarians, 
for the time at least, that it was intended for the 
Greeks alone, and the first Greek boy who went 

2 **Rambles and Studies in Greece," p. 23. 


through the juvenile court felt that he had added to 
the glory of the Greek name and dignified that worthy 
American institution as well. While somewhat ex- 
asperating at times^ this enthusiastic devotion to their 
mother country is after all a most desirable character- 
istic and one which the Anglo-American should readily 

"Considering their Eastern training and traditions 
of almost Oriental seclusion^ the Greek women adapt 
themselves very quickly to American customs. A 
Greek Women's Club has been meeting at Hull House 
once a week and a Greek Women's Philanthropic So- 
ciety has been formed there by the more prosperous, 
who expect to help in various ways the unfortunate 
members of their colony. This charitable organiza- 
tion is eagerly encouraged by the men, for the Greeks, 
although extremely shrewd in their business dealings, 
are at the same time generous. They give liberally 
to one another in times of sickness or unemployment. 
On Tag Day for the children's charities of the city 
the women reaped a good profit in the Greek stores 
and coffee houses on Halsted Street. When three 
small Greek children were left without homes, it was 
not difficult to find Greek families in the neighborhood 
of Hull House who were willing to receive and care 
for them temporarily or indefinitely. 

"Unlike the Italian women, they do not work out- 
side their own homes or at sweatshop work. Out of 
246 Greek women and girls over fifteen who were 
visited in the investigation, only 5 were found to be at 
work. This is not alone because the Greek man usu- 
ally succeeds in business, but because he considers it 
a disgrace for his wife or his sister to work, and the 
entire family often suffers that this tradition that 'the 


/ women must not work' may be upheld. An example 
of this came to the attention of the League for the 
Protection of Immigrants this spring. A Greek man 
about twenty-five years old sent his brother-in-law, 
who was ill with tuberculosis, back to Athens. His 
sister and her two children, both old enough to attend 
school, were left in Chicago. The sister was able to 
work, but. this her brother would not consider. Al- 
though he had a very small income, he rented a flat for 
her, paid her bills, and finally with some help from 
his friends purchased tickets for her and the children 
to go back home. The woman was not a very good 
mother or sister, and the man had little affection for 
her, but he knew that he would have been disgraced 
in the eyes of the Greek colony if the 'sacred tradi- 
tion,' as Professor Andreades of the University of 
Athens calls it, had not been upheld. The women are 
good housekeepers. The Greek houses are almost 
uniformly clean and comfortable, and the women and 
children neatly dressed. Even in non-family groups 
the houses are often well kept and the food well pre- 
pared by the men themselves. 

"The non-family group living above barns and feed 
stores were the only ones found in dangerously un- 
sanitary conditions. The men who live in this way 
are usually peddlers who keep their horses in the 
barns. Over one such barn there were fifteen ped- 
dlers. They were all unmarried, between 20 and 30 
years old. They earned on an average $10 a week 
and paid $30 a month rent for the barn and the rooms 
above it. The rooms were unfurnished and dirty. 
The men slept on mattresses on the floor. This was 
often the condition in which groups of peddlers were 
found, but there were some exceptions. In one group 


twenty-two men lived together. They had rented five 
of the six apartments in the flat building. Ten of 
these men were laborers who worked for the Rock 
Island and received from $10 to $12 per week^ and 
eleven were peddlers who estimated their weekly 
profits at $9. Each one of the men paid $4 a week^ 
which went toward the payment of rent, food, and the 
wages of the man who was cook and general caretaker 
of the group. With one exception all of these men 
were under thirty, and they were all unmarried. The 
flats were kept clean and the men lived comfortably. 
Often the owner of a restaurant, a fruit store, or a 
shoe shine parlor furnished his employees board and 
room. For example, the owner of a restaurant had 
a nine-room flat where eight waiters, who worked for 
him and were paid from $6 to $10 a week, lived with 
him. The house was comfortably furnished and clean. 
All the men were unmarried and between twenty and 
thirty years of age. In another group were Gve la- 
borers who paid $12 a month for a four-room rear 
house. These young men came from Tripolis. One 
of them had been here three years and was able to 
read and write English. The other four were attend- 
ing night school. The house was clean and gave the 
general impression of thrift and industry. 

"In the non-family groups the Greek boy presents 
a special problem. The boys often come with some 
neighbor who passes as their uncle or father and are 
apprenticed to one of their fellow-countrymen. They 
work as bootblacks, help around fruit stands, or ped- 
dle fruit and vegetables. That many of these boys 
are worked under a system of peonage there can be 
little doubt. Some evidence of the existence of this 
and a few cases where boys have suffered gross phys- 


ical abuse from the older men with whom they lived 
have ccmie to the attention of the League during the 
past year. And in addition to these very ugly possi- 
Ulities an investigation of the shoe shine parlors in 
the Loop District of Chicago showed the danger of 
their general mode of life. The ages of these boot- 
blacks range from IS to SS, the majority being 17. 
Their hours of work are extremely long. In addition 
to their board and clothes^ the usual wages paid those 
boys is from $15 to $20 a month. An employer who 
has a large establishment or several small ones^ as 
many of them do^ has to provide housing facilities for 
a number of boys. One man^ for example^ has eleven 
rooms — two floors and the basement — for twenty-five 
boys. The rooms are clean and neatly furnished and 
the food abundant. Another has eleven rooms for 
twenty boys^ with an old Greek man in charge as cook. 
This place is not clean. There is no furniture ex- 
cept beds^ and a long table in an inside room which 
serves as a dining room. Here the boys were found 
one night between half-past nine and ten o'clock. 
They had just returned from work and were eating 
their supper of soup and stewed corn. The danger 
of this life can be readily understood. The boys 
spend nearly all their waking hours at work. They 
live, as many of the poor must, near immoral neigh- 
borhoods and are easily accessible to men and women 
who wish to accomplish their ruin. They have no time 
for regular attendance at evening classes or clubs, no 
normal home life or relationship. But for the disci- 
pline of the bosses, who want them to be ready for 
work next day, an even larger number would find ex- 
citement and relaxation in dangerous amusements. 
Hard as the lot of these boys is, it is better than that 


of an apprentice in Greece. This accounts for the 
fact that the parents of the boys as well as the boys 
themselves are satisfied with the terms on which they 
work^ and consider deportation a great hardship. 
They work for long hours cheerfully, confident that in 
a short time they will be in a position, not to work 
fewer hours, but to set up as independent business men 
for themselves. 

"The Greeks, then, upon acquaintance prove to be 
bright, industrious, and capable men and women. 
Better than some, and not so well as others, they are 
meeting the dangerous temptations which come with 
long hours and unwholesome living conditions. What 
they become as a result of their American environment 
should be an American responsibility. The best way 
to help them and the city is not by the general con- 
demnation which is too often meted out to 'the stranger 
within our gates,' but by recognizing their ability, in- 
dustry, and capacity for good citizenship and uniting 
with them to suppress the vice and exploitations from 
which they suffer." 

This picture of the Greek colony in Chicago 
will apply in most of its general characteristics 
and many of its details to New York, where are 
settled about the same number of compatriots, 
though they are not quite so concentrated in par- 
ticular sections of the city. Such general condi- 
tions are also the same in the much smaller com- 
munities of Philadelphia, in Boston, and in San 
Francisco. In the latter city there were about 
1000 Greeks before the earthquake. After this 
catastrophe, which destroyed their first church, 
many more poured in. 




Ramshackle Market Street, Lowell, lined with 
paintless low blocks in various stages of repair, 
with the gilded domes of the beautiful Byzantine 
church off one side of the middle and the factory 
chimneys towering at the far end — this is the home 
of the largest colony of Greeks in the United 
States, outside of New York and Chicago. It is 
a single Eastern Orthodox parish of 8000 com- 
municants. It is a Greek colony segregated by 
itself in close quarters, where every shop and 
coffee house along the street displays Greek signs, 
and Greek meets Greek except for Irish policeman 
and capitalist landlord. This account of Lowell 
will serve as an illustration typical in many of its 
details of the communities of Greeks in most of 
our mill towns, especially in New England. Let 
us keep in mind throughout that the mill hands 
are, next to the railroad laborers, the lowest class 
of Greeks in America — ^lowest, I mean, in environ- 
ment and opportunity for advancement. 

The first Greek immigrants to Lowell came in 

1891. At that time practically all Greeks in the 

country were peddlers; there was probably not 

one working in a mill. It was the period of the 



financial panic, 1892, that marks the date of the / 
beginning of the Greek factory workers. De- 
pression came for the Greek peddling business; 
two or three peddlers in distress got a chance in 
the mills of Lowell; they wrote to their friends; 
and so it was started. The little colony began 
by working at the lowest kind of mill jobs at $3 
or $4 a week, as sweepers or doing the heavy work 
in the dye house, the picker room, etc. After a 
year some had learned a little English. The 
overseers saw that the Greeks were steady and 
sober and kept their jobs. So they asked them 
if they knew of any other Greeks. By 1894 there 
were some 125 working in the Lawrence and also 
the Suffolk Mills of the city. As the Greeks be- 
gan to flock into Lowell it often happened that 
one employed was obliged to support three or four 
unemployed. At first they could find no lodging 
rooms. Sometimes they were obliged to sleep on 
the roofs of tenements, without the proprietor 
knowing it. In 1894 the mills closed down all 
summer — the poor Greeks would go out into the 
country and fill their pockets with apples, which 
with bread was their only fare. 

After that summer of 1894 work was good and 
the colony increased rapidly. At that time were 
established the first coffee house, a Greek grocery, 
and a bakery. Many were earning $6, $7, $8 a 
week then, and so they began to send money to 
their needy friends in Chicago and New York to 
come; and money went home to the families in 



Greece with the usual effect. Up to this time a 
/ sort of padrone system had been in vogue in one 
or two of the mills. For example, some Greek 
who had learned English would be paid $10 by an 
overseer to furnish a man for a job, and then the 
Greek would find the man and charge him $S5. 
The Greek inunigrants were too scared to report 
such exploitation. When the k. Michel latros, 
a Greek of refinement and education who after- 
wards taught in Lowell schools and was appointed 
vice-consul for Lowell, first went there, the Greeks 
told him of this, and he reported it at once to 
Mr. Nourse, the mill agent. The latter called 
up the overseer the next day and discharged him 
and so the gang was broken up. At this time 
there was only one woman and two young daugh- 
ters in the colony. By 1896 there were some 300 
in the colony. 

Let us pause a moment in the march of our his- 
tory and discuss the rise and conduct of the inter- 
racial war of this period, and how the Hellene 
won. Like the Balkan peninsular and various 
other sections of Europe and Asia, Lowell, Massa- 
chusetts, is the heterogeneous product of a series 
of migrations. In 1822 some Americans of pure 
New England stock founded Lowell, and for years 
was protracted the peaceful Puritan regime. At 
last came the barbarian invasion known as the 
Irish ; they grasped the reigns of power and have 
held them ever since. In due time the dark-haired 
horde of the north swept over the land, and the 


French Canadian underbid the just wages of la- 
bor. At the present time the 100,000 of Lowell 
are made up, two-fifths Irish and English, one- 
fifth French Canadians, 8000 Greeks, several thou- 
sand each of Poles, Swedes, Portuguese, and Jews, 
and also a goodly smattering of Syrians, Armeni- 
ans, Norwegians, Slavs from Austria-Hungary, 
etc., etc. — at least 40 nationalities. It is stated 
that there are in Lowell also a few Americans. 
Back in those early '90's the sons of Hellas began 
the third important migration. Their coming 
made the Irish and the French, who had held 
down the miU jobs heretofore, mad. The Greeks 
proved themselves the steadier workmen. From 
time immemorial Monday and often Tuesday had 
been held sacred as the drunk days, when an habit- 
ual Hibernian or Franco "hang-over" retarded 
the mill machinery. The Greeks were free from 
drink and were good for work all the week, and 
the overseers naturally favored them because of 
that. This made the French and the Irish mad- 
der. From the very beginning these two dominant 
races attacked and ill-used the new Greek laborers 
and hounded them from good lodgings. Their at- 
tacks grew as the Greek colony grew. At night, 
when the mills poured out their operatives, the 
poor, scared Greeks would gather twenty or so 
together, take the middle of the street and in 
close formation rush to Market Street, where 
they scattered to their lodgings like frightened 
sparrows and dared not stir out till morning. 


But one day when a Grecian youngster was at- 
tacked, he thrust a jackknife into a Frenchman 
(ordinary pocket knife, Greeks rarely carry "con- 
cealed weapons,'' reports to the contrary notwith- 
standing). This Greek was not arrested, and 
his stand had a most salutary effect. From that 
moment all a Greek had to do was to put his hand 
to his back pocket — "He has a knife! a knife!'' 
(I imagine it was pronounced "knoife" or "cou- 
teau.") The sons of Greece were attacked no 
longer, and persecution became only indirect. 
One of the traditions of the community is that one 
night in Lowell nine stalwart Spartans armed 
with clubs put to flight an army of several hun- 
dred French. The descendants of Pausanias had 
routed the host of latter day barbarians. 

The increasing colony was obliged to segregate 
itself in Market Street because all other sections 
of the city refused them access. So there they 
settled in the tumble-down tenements, whither the 
owners attracted them, with the usual care of rich 
landed proprietors for the comfort and sanitary 
weal of helpless tenants, by patching up — ^like 
the patching of powder and rouge — sans decency 
and sans repair. 

In 1895 a society was formed of which the k. 
latros was president, which called the first Greek 
priest, discharged at that time from the New 
York community, Kallinikos Delveis. A hired 
hall was used for the church. 

In 1897 came the tidings from home of war 


with Turkey. A young Greek (who, by the way, 
now owns a fine candy store in Lynn and is a 
student in the Boston University Law School) 
formed a company, and some 200 or 300 went to 
Greece. The war was short and they soon came 
back bringing with them a large number of their 
fellow countrymen. Through them the name of 
Lowell became in the Peloponnesus almost as well 
known as that of Athens. This brought the col- 
ony up to the 1000 mark. Next year began 
an influx of Thessalians, Epirotes, and Macedon- 
ians, and the stream of immigration became a 

For the next three years ensued the character- 
istic community wrangles, carried sometimes to 
iJhe courts, over church offices and community 
mismanagement, only perhaps it was a little more 
wranglesome than usual. At last, in 1901, when 
the colony had reached 3000, a building was 
bought on Lewis Avenue, along which runs one of 
the mill raceways, and the basement fixed up for a 

In 1904 the committee tore down this building 
and began the present edifice, the finest Greek 
Church in America (except, perhaps, the new Chi- 
cago one), costing nearly $80,000. Directly 
across the canal stands a beautiful Roman Catho- 
lic Church. Here truly meet East and West, two 
excellent examples of the Byzantine and Gothic 
fronting each other, the gilded domes and slender 
spires rising out of the midst of tumble-down ten- 



ements, with an American factory raceway rushing 

Now why did these poor immigrants erect such 
an elaborate structure at such tremendous cost? 
At the time the Greek physicians of Lowell thought 
it foolish and well nigh impossible. But the pres- 
ident, the k. Gouzoules, and the administrative 
council had method in their madness. If, they 
argued, we build a truly magnificent church, this 
will preclude factional division. If we build a 
cheap imperfect affair like the Boston one, for 
instance, then when the inevitable quarrels arise, 
no faction can split off and persuade the people 
to go worship in a hired hall, nor can they build 
a second church like this. And so, unlike New 
York, Boston, and Chicago, since that time — 
though there must have been factional wrangling 
— a split has been impossible. Moreover it has 
proven a financial success. Before the erection 
of the church, the community funds were running 
behind; since then all have been enthusiastic over 
their church and the current expense bills have 
been paid with a good annual balance. The 
$80000 for the building and furnishing the church 
was collected by voluntary subscriptions, entirely 
from the members of the Greek colony, except a 
hundred or so dollars from a few American mer- 
chants. Within a year and a naif they raised 
$30000. One Holy Week it wak put up to a 
meeting of the whole community \whether they 
should gild the domes or no, cost $3000. Straight- 


way they contributed this whole amount at this 
Good Friday night service. Some $20000 still 
remains on the mortgage, which is decreased each 
year by $2000 or $3000 from the ordinary in- 
come. The times are not as good now as they 
were for textile manufactory laborers, and so 
there is no effort made to raise the balance by 
extraordinary measures. Nevertheless, at any 
time, should occasion arise, this would be an easy 
matter for the entire balance would be less than 
one week's wages of the whole community of 

The k. George Gouzoules, who runs a ticket — 
etc. — agency and also a model saloon, and who 
for the past twelve years, till 1912, has been pres- 
ident of the community is the man who organized 
the present community and engineered the nerve- 
racking task of building the church. The priest 
at that time was the Rev. Nicholas Lazares, who 
IS now pastor of the split-off community in New 
York. A young architect of Lowell, Henry L. 
Rourke worked out the designs from Byzantine 
models, and the excellent mural and also the eikon 
painting was done by a German artist, who took 
fifteen months for its execution. The massive 
mahogany episcopal throne cost $1000, and the 
other complete interior furnishings are on a like 
scale. The basement of the church is fitted out 
for the Greek school. The church was completed 
in 1908. 

Several years ago the size of the community of 


Lowell had reached 10000. At present there are 
about 8000. One or two thousand of these are 
women half of whom are unmarried, between the 
ages of 16 and 21. Then there are several hun- 
dred little children. Times have become harder 
^ and so there is going on an exodus of Greeks to 
the West, where they find work either in the vine- 
yards of California or on the railroad lines. May 
this exodus increase, for there are in Lowell far 
too many Greeks for their own good, concentrated 
for the most part more than in any other city of 
the New World, in one small section of the city. 

Here is an approximately complete list of the 
various professional men, shops, etc., which minis- 
ter to the wants and wishes of this great colony. 
For the spiritual wants and wishes there is but 
one priest at present, the Rev. Constas Chatzed- 
emetriou — you cannot expect a pastor with 8000 
in his flock to be much more than a machine. He 
lives with his wife and children in a rectory and 
accrues an income from salary and endless fees of 
about $6000 a year. There are 3 Greek phy- 
sicians — there used to be 6 — and there is 1 dentist 
and 2 drug stores. 2 newspapers, Patris and 
Anagenesis, % printing offices, 3 ticket agencies, 
2 photographers, 1 importing house, 2 cigarette 
manufactories, several dry goods stores, tailor 
shops, and shoemakers, 4 restaurants, some 30 
groceries, and a wholesale meat-dealer, 6 bakeries, 
26 or 30 coffee houses, 1 model saloon (for the 
other races as well as the temperate Greek, though 


no drinks are sold to a drunken man), about IQ 
confectioners and fruit stores, some fine ones for 
non-Greek trade, a number of barbers, and a 
number of shoe shine parlors. Most of these, 
except the concerns established for American 
trade, are huddled into the Market Street section. 
It is interesting to go into a dry goods store 
and find all the signs and price marks in Greek. 
There are several farms, each owned jointly by 
four or five Greeks, and there are a number of 
farm laborers. Of course the great bulk of the 
colony work in the mills at various grades of un- 
skilled and skilled labor. The Greeks are well 
spoken of by the mill agents and overseers, and 
also by their landlords. The city authorities 
consider them the most peaceable of all the for- 

Now about the housing conditions. They are 
as good as those provided for other immigrants, 
or rather as bad. Anyone who is familiar with 
the wretched tenements of our textile manufac- 
turing cities knows what this is, and ought to 
know where the blame lies. "Alas P' cry the clean 
and comfortable well-to-do of "charitable'' turn 
of mind, "what horrible conditions; hotbeds of 
disease, total disregard of the laws of sanitation, 
pig pens, etc." — and perhaps some of these good 
pitying souls own the tenement houses! and 
doubtless "scientific" investigations are made, and 
they try to teach the poor pigs how to live. Yet 
is the fault with the latter animals? True some 


Greeks, like other people, are doubtless bom pigs 
and will remain so; but the majority, if pigs at 
all, are so owing to the conditions under which 
they are forced to live, and if they were given half 
a chance and these conditions were removed, they 
would not be so. The trouble really is that the 
landlords are Hogs. How can one fight tuber- 
culosis when the walls and floors have been satu- 
rated with bacteria for fifty years? How can the 
tenants observe sanitary conditions when there 
are no water closets ? It is easy to talk of cleanli- 
ness of apartments when you have your own cook 
and chambermaid and plumber, but when a man 
is his own cook and chambermaid and breadwinner 
too, what time has he for the niceties of house- 
keeping? A man earning $6 a week cannot pay 
much for rent; besides, Greeks would not be ac- 
cepted in the regular lodging houses. They had 
to hire their tenement and furnish it with the 
barest necessities — dishes, tables, beds, chairs, and 
cook stove. Where there is a woman, they keep 
clean; but with the majority there is no woman, 
and the men have to work all day. Where men 
have to pay $10 or $12 a week and support their 
families in Greece too, they must of necessity club 
together as many as possible. Of course they do 
not herd from choice. After a long day's heavy 
work (in those cases where they do not have one of 
their number stay out to do the cooking) they rush 
to a grocery, buy a bit of rice, potatoes, etc., go 
"home," light the stove, and try to cook. It is 


eight o'clock, perhaps, before supper is over, and 
then their tired bodies must drop into bed. And 
the poor food that they eat? — But that is no 
privation; it is as good as they were used to at 
home. To be sure they might, nay ought, to keep 
their windows open at night. But with no stoves 
for heating — they often cannot afford that luxury 
— and in the bitter winter cold of New Eng- 
land, what can you expect of a man brought 
up in sunny Peloponnesus, where snow is un- 

Yes, conditions sanitary and otherwise are bad 
in those ramshackle, germ-steeped tenements of 
Market Street. Bum them down, O American 
millionaire, and erect something in keeping with 
our vaunted American freedom and advanced civi- 
lization. One property owner by expending a 
very little money could do more than a thousand 
Greeks to remedy such conditions. And the like, 
except in those rare instances where the factory 
corporations themselves display traces of human- 
ity, is the trouble in nearly all our factory towns ; 
and the city governments are bought up and the 
health boards are afraid to enforce. But then, 
in the case of the Greeks, they, having been in- 
ured by centuries of slavery under the Turk, stand 
it better than many other nationalities, and being 
more enterprising than the rest, they quickly 
better their lot. My point here is that we ought 
to stop blaming these foreigners for what is not 
their fault. In other parts of the country, where 




the Greeks are not so herded together, they live 
under very different housing conditions. 

However, the wretched state of affairs we have 
been dilating upon, is not applicable to all the 
Greeks in Lowell by any means. Many of those 
who have been there some lengthvpf time own their 
homes, and are able to live like other people. 
Some few have bought neat houses in the suburbs. 
Then, too, there are over a thousand families in 
Lowell, and new families are being formed as fast 
as possible. As soon as the many Gredc girls in 
Lowell reach the age of 18 or 19 they are married, 
at the rate of several every week. The Greek 
housewife keeps the house clean ; their rooms com- 
pare very favorably with those of other national- 
ities, American as weU as foreign. There were no 
public baths in Lowell — as there should be in 
every crowded city — so a public spirited Greek, 
the k. Spyropoulos, who has been in Lowell twenty 
years, recently started one for the Greeks over 
his coffee house, installing up-to-date automatic 
heaters for his showers. In the summer he aver- 
ages some 200 a week. They are used by the 
women at special hours, as well as the men. 

For his principal means of recreation, the Greek 
of Lowell, as in most other Greek colonies of any 
size, has that purely oriental institution, the 
coffee house. When these were first established in 
Lowell, the chief of police objected to the Greek 
vice-consul, but finally agreed to allow them under 
suffrance. At the end of six months all ban was 


removed, and the poKce declared them one of the 
most beneficial institutions in the city. They are 
to the Greek what in a certain degree the saloon 
is to the American laborer, i. e., in its social as- 
pects, without the harmfulness of the saloon. It 
would be a mighty good thing if our vociferous 
"temperance" societies would spend their tongues 
and pens in establishing and popularizing Ameri- 
can coffee houses instead of frenzied prohibition 
— at which latter spectacle our Greeks are ever 
wont to jest. Imagine a room, sometimes shabby, 
sometimes neat, filled with little tables, about 
which are seated moustached Greeks, talking, jok- 
ing, playing cards, sometimes singing, poring over 
newspapers, and smoking cigarettes and drinking 
their thick, sweet Turkish coffee, served in tiny 
cups, or perhaps Moxie or some other soft drink. 
Here are discussed with relish and vivacity and 
factional intelligence the politics of the commu- 
nity, Greece, the United States. Here is the typ- / 
ical Greek spirit of comradeship and argument. 
In some coffee houses in other cities, and especially 
in the West where idle railroad laborers congre- 
gate, there is much gambling, and innocents are 
fleeced by professionals. But in Lowell there is 
little rabid gambling, except among a small group, 
the Mainates, from a particular section of south- 
ern Peloponnesus, Maina. These are the only 
professionals, and they are not at all in favor with 
the rest of the community, nor do they carry on 
their trade in the coffee houses, but in private 



rooms. There is scarcely any fleecing in Lowell 
now, for the community is an established Greek 
city and little underhand work can be done with- 
out the rest knowing it. The coffee houses have 
been accused of breeding idleness, but except for 
the western railroad laborers, this must be gener- 
ally speaking, false, for there is hardly another 
nationality in America which heis such a universal 
majority of steady and shrewd workers. 

As for drunkenness, as we have stated before, 
there is practically none among Greeks. In this 
they ev6r adhere to that fundamental maxim of 
the sages of ancient Greece, "Measure in all 
things," or "Nothing in excess.'* I was told that 
for the past twenty years in Lowell there has been 
only one arrest of a Greek on the charge of intoxi- 
cation, and it was not at all certain that that man 
was drunk. The Greeks, when they can get it, 
drink beer with their suppers in lieu of the light 
wines they were always accustomed to at home. 
The strict enforcement of prohibition or high 
license laws on Greeks, thereby depriving them of 
a harmless custom of home, amounts in their case 
to a barbarous persecution. ! \ 

A common source of recreation among the mar- 
ried people is for a couple of families to spend the 
evening together. The Greeks enjoy going to the 
moving pictures and cheaper theaters and the 
near-by summer resorts, just like other laboring 

There is an excellent amateur theatrical troup 


of some twenty members, organized out of the 
working people six yeArs ago. They give about 
ten modem Greek playsVa year, and you can gener- 
ally see their posters in Greek decorating the lamp 
posts and shop windows of Market Street. 

Several years ago a military company was or- 
ganized. Before the Balkan war it numbered 
about 200. They wear natty khaki uniforms, and 
drill according to the Greek manual with imitation 
guns. They have their own drill hall, and in the 
summer it is a usual Sunday sight to see them 
marching out to the open country. 

Of course there are the usual Greek local so- 
cieties, made up of the natives of certain Greek 
or Turkish provinces. They have their own 
rooms, outside of which are flaunted great Greek 
signs. But here let us record with satisfaction 
a turn in this tide : there were 12 ; at present there 
are only 6. ilt is hoped by the leading Greeks 
that soon there will be none, for it is these that 
do much to foster factional strife. The reason 
for this lessening of the number of societies is the 
Pan-Hellenic Union. This is an excellent exam- 
ple of the good the Union is accomplishing. 

As has been the case everywhere else, so in 
Lowell the Greeks, however poor and wretched, ^^ 
have always taken care of themselves or each other. ^ 
They are too proud to accept charity. During- 
all the twenty years, except in one instance, the 
city of Lowell has never paid a cent to help a 
Greek individual or family, nor to bury a Greek. 


The one instance was when a Greek Protestant 
"missionary" went to the overseer of the poor and 
got some money ostensibly for his brother's family, 
all of whom were working at the time! 

Instances there have been when some well mean* 
ing Protestant churches have tried to proselytize 
the Orthodox Greeks; but the methods they em- 
ployed and the display they made over their 
baptism ( !) of one convert so embittered the 
Greeks that they despised and still despise the 
/ name Protestant even more than they did in 
Greece. There is, however, one Lowell Greek, one 
of the five or six Protestant "missionaries" in 
America connected with the Congregationalists, 
a sweet-souled old man, who, though he rarely 
makes a convert, has nevertheless made himself 
respected and beloved by his deeds of real charity 
in visiting the sick and suffering of his country- 

In regard to strikes the Greeks differ from other 
nationalities. To be sure, in Lowell and elsewhere 
the Greeks sometimes walk out with, or even with- 
out, the other textile employees, but they do it 
in their own exclusive way. Being thoroughly 
organized and sufficient unto themselves, they care 
naught for labor unions nor the I. W. W. For 
example, during the strike in Lowell in the spring 
of 1912, the Greeks struck with the rest, but they 
did it under their own organization and had to be 
dealt with separately. This fact and their exem- 
plary behavior redounded to their advantage. 


The city of Lowell and the commonwealth of 
Massachusetts have done well by the Greek in the 
matter of schools. There are two evening schools 
held in city school buildings, exclusively for 
Greeks, in session four months of the year. These 
average 400 scholars and sometimes reach 600. 
English, history, arithmetic, and other elementary 
branches are taught. The Greeks prove good 
scholars and are well behaved. They are con- 
sidered the most orderly and best evening schools 
in the city. Attendance is obligatory for minors 
by state law. No young foreigner between the 
ages of 14 and 18 (or, if illiterate, 21), can obtain 
or keep a job in the mills without showing his 
school card properly marked for attendance. 
This is an excellent state law and should be 
adopted by all states where there are a number 
of immigrants residing.^ In addition to the 

1 Revised Laws of Massachusetts relating to Public In- 
struction, enacted 1901, with amendments and additions 
from 1903 to 1911:— 



Section 11. Any town may, and every city or town of 
ten thousand or more inhabitants shall, maintain annually 
evening schools for the instruction of persons over four- 
teen years of age in orthography, reading, writing, the 
English language and grammar, geography, arithmetic, in- 
dustrial drawing, both free hand and mechanical, the his- 
tory of the United States, physiology and hygiene, and 
good behavior. Such other subjects may be taught in such 
schools as the school committee consider expedient. 


minors, indeed in excess of them, a large nmnber 
of older Greek men attend these two schools. 
There are not many Greeks of Lowell naturalized 
as yet, though they are trying to qualify all the 
time, and a large number have their first papers. 
Then there is the distinctly Greek school of the 
community, for the little Greek boys and girls, 
which meets in the basement of the church under 
two Greek teachers, a man and a woman, and one 
American, a woman. The attendance is about 


Sectiok 12. Every city of fifty thousand or more in- 
habitants shall maintain annually an evening high school, 
in which shall be taught such subjects as the school com- 
mittee thereof consider expedient, if fifty or more resi- 
dents, fourteen years of age or over, who are competent 
in the opinion of the school committee to pursue high 
school studies shall petition in writing for an evening high 
school and certify tiiat they desire to attend such school. 

Sectiox 13. The school committee shall, two weeks next 
before the opening of each term of the evening schools, 
post in three or more public places of their city or town 
notice of the location of said schools, the date of the be- 
ginning of the term, the evenings of the week on which 
they shall be kept, such regulations as to attendance as 
they deem proper, and the provisions of section thirty- 
five of chapter one hundred and six. 




Section 66, While a public evening school is maintained 
in the city or town in which any minor resides who is 
over fourteen years of age and who does not have a cer- 
tificate signed by the superintendent of schools, or by the 


100, and 100 more attend the regular American 
public schools. 

Let us conclude this sketch of Lowell with a 
description of the interior of the beautiful church, 
of which the Greeks of the whole country are so 
justly proud. It is pure Byzantine except for 
the wall frescoes and the pulpit. You enter 
through the arched doorway into the porch, where 
stands the framed Eikons and the candle holder. 
(The Baptismal font is kept in a closet in the 

school committee, or by some person acting under author- 
ity thereof, certifying to his ability to read at sight and 
write legibly simple sentences in the English language, no 
person shall employ him, and no parent, guardian or cus- 
todian shall permit him to be employed unless he is a 
regular attendant at such evening school or at a day school. 
. . . Any minor not holding such certificate shall furnish 
to his employer a record of his school attendance each 
week while the evening school is in session, and when said 
record shows unexcused absences from the sessions, his 
attendance shall be deemed irregular according to this act. 
Whoever employs a minor in violation of the provisions of 
this section shall forfeit not more than one hundred dol- 
lars for each offence to the use of the evening schools of 
such city or town. A parent, guardian or custodian who 
permits a minor under his control to be employed in viola- 
tion of the provisions of this section shall forfeit not more 
than twenty dollars to the use of the evening schools of 
such city or town. 

(As amended by chapter 941^ Acts of 1911, and chapter 

191, 1919) 

"Child" or "Minor" shall mean a person under eighteen 
years of age, except that in regard to the compulsory at- 
tendance of illiterate minors at day or evening schools, 
the word "Minor" shall mean a person under the age of 
twenty-one years. 


basement, and babies are immersed in the school- 
room. It looks like a great copper cauldron on 
a standard.) From the inner doors of the porch 
you advance under the deep gallery for women 
to the center of the church. There are no seats 
of course, save a few in the gallery, which is for 
the women. As you stand under the glistening 
chandelier which hangs from the center of the 
broad dome, to the right and left are the short, 
wide arms of the cruciform structure, and before 
you the eikonostasis, or solid screen shutting off 
the sanctuary, or, as the Orthodox call it, the 
altar. In its midst are the holy doors, on the left 
the doors of the prothesis or credence, and on the 
right those of the vesting room. Before the eik- 
onastasis hang the seven silver lamps, on either 
side are the singers' desks, railed off in brass with 
the various ofBce books upon them, and behind 
the left hand desk rises the pulpit — a high one of 
regular western model. On the other side, under 
the transept's round arch, is the massive episcopal 
throne, whereon a Greek bishop has not yet sat, 
though a Syrian bishop has, I have been told. 
When the holy doors in the center are swung 
open, there stands the square Altar or Holy Table 
on which are the tabernacle and the book of the 
Holy Gospels, and behind the Altar a great cruci- 
fix with the Corpus painted flat. (In the picture 
shown on the opposite page the crucifix has been 
carried to the center of the nave and stands be- 
side the representation of the sepulchre of the 



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buried Lord, used only on Good Friday and Easter 
Even. The regular place of the candle stands 
is before the two central Eikons.) 

Let me give a list of the paintings, and then 
let the reader with the help of the picture imagine 
this church as best he may. The figures beauti- 
fully executed on the eikonastasis are, of course, 
according to the century-old stereotyped models, 
although the coloring is not gaudy, as is usual, 
but of light mural tints. The other paintings 
are either copies of eastern and western art or 
the artist's own conceptions. The large Eikons 
flanking the holy doors are: — ^to the right as you 
face the screen, the Christ and His forerunner; 
to the left His Blessed Mother (Theotokos) and 
the Holy Trinity. Above the doors is the Last 
Supper, and on either side the Twelve Apostles. 
On the holy doors are the two figures of the .Axi- 
nuncic^tion, and on the two side doors archangels. 
Behind and above the screen in the half dome 
of the central apse is a beautiful conception of 
the crowned Theotokos and Child surrounded by 
angels; and high above, on the arched rear wall, 
the mitred figures of the three great Patriarchs, 
S.S. Chrysostom, Basil, and Gregory. In the 
springing of the dome over the four comer pillars, 
are represented the four evangelists, and from 
high aloft, encircling the dome itself, look down 
the nine orders of angels. Finally the walls of 
the shallow transepts contain eight tall frescoes, 
portraying the life of our Lord : " The Nativity," 



"Christ among the Doctors," "The Baptism, 
"The Agony in Gethsemane^" "The Crucifixion, 
and "The Ascension." Nothing in Eikons or 
paintings is gaudy, but all is done with exquisite 
taste and proportion. Truly this house of God, 
so full of ordered symbolism and pictured teaching, 
cannot but instil in the Greek reverent thoughts 
of God and His power and love, and devotion to 
His Holy Church.2 

In Massachusetts, as may be seen by the table. 
Appendix A, there are, exclusive of Boston, five 
other colonies in manufacturing cities, numbering 
over a thousand, and many more numbering into 
the hundreds. In New Hampshire and Maine 
also there are large colonies. In all these, con- 
ditions are much the same as in Lowell, tHough 
nowhere is the colony concentrated nor the or- 
ganization as perfected. 

2 Late last year a noteworthy account of this city of 
many races appeared, "The Record of a City," by Greorge F. 
Kenngott, Ph.D. (Macmillan, 1912), written in a sympathetic 
spirit and most valuable to the student of immigration. It 
came to my hands after I had written this chapter; and 
it is gratifying to find it in almost entire accord with the 
facts and conclusions of my Greek informants. 


Lrt us next consider very briefly the life of the 
western railroad laborers, with sketches of three 
typical western Greek communities. Their life 
and low condition in the winter months is some- 
what like that of the mill hands, only worse. 


Throughout the West, the work on the railroad 

lines is done by Greeks, Bulgarians, Roumanians, 

Croatians, and also some Italians. Each gang 

is treated as a racial unit, living in separate cars. 

The other nationalities sometimes fraternize in 

the same camp, but the Hellene never. The bosses 

declare the Greeks to be steady and cheerful. 

The quarters are freight cars, fitted up with 

eight or ten bunks, and separate cars for dining 

room and kitchen. The bunk cars are never 

crowded and space usually is left in the middle for 

a table for card playing. In the kitchen car, 

equipped with its range, ice chest, and lockers, the 

cook sleeps, and sometimes an interpreter. The 

camps are on sidings, with ladders raised to the 

open doorways. Sometimes the cook bakes his 

bread in an oven built into an embankment or 

hillside. The men go to and from their work on 



hand cars. Thus they live in the warm months 
of the year, and in the winter months pile into the 

V various cities which dot the great West, all the 
way from Chicago to the Pacific. The sad result 
of the idle winter life of the western Greek laborer 
we mentioned in a previous chapter. 

In all these cities where are congregated the 
Greeks, the coffee houses are in abundance, and in 
them the idle laborers waste most of their time. 
Unlike those of Lowell, the western coffee houses 
are often the haunts of the professional gambler 
and the professional vampires of all kinds, women 
as well as men, who fleece and ruin and degrade. 
Besides the frequent phonographs, these coffee 
houses often offer the attraction of strolling play^ 
ers and dancing. And the western police gladly 
tolerate all this, for they squeeze fat bribes from 
the proprietors. If the police do not get it the 
lawyers do. Thus the proprietors are often 
ruined as well as their customers. This, indeed, 
must seem like home to the Macedonian Greeks 
and the like, who were brought up under Turkish 

There was one instance in South Omaha where 
the Americans, after a meeting in their city hall 
arose in a body and drove out the Greeks and 
destroyed their shops. The direct cause of this 
was the murder of a policeman, but the matter 
had been smouldering for some time before be- 
cause some of the idle railroad laborers had made 

/ themselves nuisances. This is the only instance 

'>'■ 5^ 

A; W:. 



of such an action against Greeks by an American 
mob. This South Omaha affair is discussed by 
Dr. Peter Roberts, International Immigration 
Secretary of the Y. M. C. A., in "New Immigra- 
tion," p. 299, (Macmillan, 1912), as follows: 

"In South Omaha, one of the most shameful riots 
ever known took place because of prejudice against 
the foreigner. A Greek went into the house of a 
young lady of questionable character, and a policeman, 
following the man, arrested him without any overt 
cause whatsoever. The Greek resisted and, in the 
scuffle which followed, the officer was shot. That was 
Saturday night. The following Sunday morning as 
the bells were ringing, calling men to worship, a mob 
assembled and, under the leadership of disreputable 
fellows, began storming the Greek quarters, smashing 
windows, breaking doors, and pursuing the terror- 
stricken and defenseless Greeks in all directions. On 
the comer of L Street and 24th Avenue was the firm 
of Demos Brothers — superior men in every sense of 
the word, one of them being married to an American 
girl. This store was several blocks away from the 
Greek quarter, but on came the raging mob as the 
surging tide, lashed by gusts of rage and passion. 
They attacked the store at a time when the white- 
haired mother of the Demos Brothers sat quietly at 
the soda fountain. They smashed windows, tore to 
pieces the soda fountain, strewed on floor and street 
the contents of windows and cases and left the place, 
which represented an investment of more than $7000, 
a mass of ruins. The brothers and their families fled 
for life. They had other stores in Omaha, which they 
inunediately gave up, for they knew not how far this 


wave of fury, fanaticism, and savagery would sweep, 
and in a week they found themselves reduced by mob 
violence in Christian America from the position of 
prosperous merchants to paupers. . . . Instances of 
mob violence against the foreigners are also found in 
the East, and even the South is not exempt. . . ." 

Perhaps we can get the best general idea of 
these western communities by quoting in literal 
translation the account of three of them from 
Canoutas' "Greek American Guide." 


"Of the Central States Missouri entertains the larg- 
est number of Greeks after Illinois. There are from 
5000 to 6000 of our fellow-countrymen there, often 
more. The largest Greek centers are St. Louis, Kan- 
sas City, and St. Joseph. 

"In St. Louis the Greeks who live there permanently 
number some 2000. In the winter time this number 
is nearly doubled by the coming of the many laborers 
from the railway lines. The Greek shops amount to 
about 200, and consist of candy stores, restaurants, 
bootblacking establishments, and the inevitable Greek 
workmen's centers, the coffee houses and the Greek 
restaurants, which are on Elm and Walnut Streets. 
Families, 70-80. Outside of those engaged in Greek 
shops, they are employed in the factories or the Amer- 
ican hotels. 

"The Greek community of St. Louis - dates from 
1905. At first the priests in Chicago took turns com- 
ing to celebrate the Divine Liturgy, and then a regu- 
lar pastor was appointed, coming there from Boston — 
the Rev. P. Phiampolis. They used and still use for 


the Greek church an Episcopal church building. At 
the end of 1910 the community divided into two parts. 
On account of dissatisfaction from several causes the 
greater part left the above church, and, headed by a 
Greek physician, they formed a community and hired 
a church building and called as priest the Rev. P. Ab- 
ramopoulos, who before that was living in Portland, 
Oregon, without a parish." 


"About 4000 of our people are in the state of Utah, 
most of them workmen in the coal and other mines 
and on the railway lines. The chief center for the 
Greeks is Salt Lake City, where there is a community 
of the same name. At present there are some hun- 
dred Greek' shops there, half of which deal entirely 
with the Greeks; these are concentrated on 2nd Street 
S. W., where is the Greek colony, and consist of coffee 
houses, restaurants, groceries, saloons, barber shops> 
etc. The rest are entirely for American trade and are 
restaurants, a few candy stores, and bootblack stands. 

"The progress of this colony till lately has been by 
leaps and bounds. In January, 1905, the resolution 
was adopted to call a priest and organize a church. 
On the 21st of April he came, the present priestly 
head, the Rev. Archimandrite Parthenos Lymperopou- 
los, appointed by the Holy Synod of Greece. On 
Palm Sunday the first Liturgy was celebrated in a 
hired hall. On May 10th they bought in a very cen- 
tral location a lot for the church building. On July 
10th the foundation stone was laid, and on October 
25th the church edifice, costing about $10000, was 
turned over to the community. On the 29th of the 
same month the Liturgy was celebrated in the newly 



built church, which is dedicated to the * Holy Trinity.' 
This church is free from all debt, and has been fur- 
nished and decorated by the generous subscriptions of 
the Greeks of the state of Utah, who, outside those 
mentioned above living at the capital, are all laborers; 
but laborers industrious and saving, devout and patri- 
otic, eager to contribute their ohol for the good of 
the whole conununity or the national need of the 
fatherland, whenever asked to do so, whether by their 
priest, whom all reverence and love, or by those di- 
recting the affairs of the community at the time. 

"Among the best known of our fellow-countrymen 
there we will mention the k. Nicholas Stathakos (who 
did a great deal in the organization of the community 
and the building of the church), the two brothers the k. 
k. Leonidas and Evangelos Skleres. The former is very 
well known in the western states, not only among the 
Greeks but also among the American business men, 
as ingenious, active, and daring in enterprises, a con- 
tractor for various kinds of labor and an agent for 
work for many thousand Greek laborers. The latter, 
who is a lawyer, was engaged formerly with his 
brother in business transactions and enterprises and 
now is director of the commercial house called the 
Italian-Greek Mercantile Company. Recently two 
Greek newspapers have been started, one. Light, by 
Dr. P. Kassinikos and the k. Joan. Georgiados, and 
the other. Progress, by Georg. Photopoulos. There is 
a branch there of the Pan-Hellenic Union." 


"In the state of Washington live 6000-8000 Greeks. 
The majority of these are employed on the railway 
lines, the rest in the lumber mills, which abound in 


this state^ or in other work. Wages vary according 
to the kind of work from $1.65 to $2.50 a day^ and a 
few receive less or more. In the winter most of our 
laborers are concentrated in the cities of Spokane^ 
Seattle, and Tacoma, where they find Greek coffee 
houses and restaurants. 

"In the city of Seattle there dwell in the summer 
about 1000 Greeks and in the winter time they amount 
to 2000 or 3000 and often more, from the conflux of 
the railroad laborers and others from Alaska (where 
at present some 300-500 work in the mines; formerly 
there were more). Families in Seattle about 50. The 
Greek stores are fish markets, restaurants, coffee 
houses, a few saloons and bootblack stands. Here 
our fellow-countryman from Andros, the k. K. Pan- 
tazes, began his enterprises and has his headquarters 
as owner and director of many theaters in the various 
states west of Chicago. 

"The first Greeks in Seattle were some sailors, who 
settled there more than thirty years ago. Of these 
we will mention the k. G. Chatzetamates from Tseme 
(Turkey in Europe) and N. Petsas from Spetsai, who 
are still there. Years ago, before the city had begun 
to develop, the former, with his brother-in-law, N. 
Mantsas, bought for a comparatively low price a cer- 
tain lot (757 Lake View Avenue) on which they built 
a church; but as they were unable to support a priest, 
they gave it over, just as the Greeks in Galveston, 
Texas, had done, to the Russian bishop, who sent a 
pastor, and after him another, the Rev. M. Andreades, 
a very learned Greek clergyman, a native of Con- 
stantinople, but educated in Russia. Because the 
Greeks outnumbered the other Orthodox in Seattle, 
this priest was granted permission to celebrate the 


/ Divine Liturgy in Greek. Nevertheless, later many 
of our fellow-countrymen there made the resolve to 
establish a purely Greek church and started a sub- 
scription for this purpose. 

"There is a benevolent society there under the title 
of 'Hellenism/ which is doing much good, as we were 
able to find out in our tour. Also there is another 
local society called 'Erythrai,' composed of the natives 
of Krikoukios (near Athens). Recently there was 
established a Branch of the t'an-Hellenic Union." 


The typical instances of Greek communities we 
have given thus far have been those of large ex- 
tent, containing from one to many thousands. 
In these the Greeks have, perforce, clannishly con- 
gregated by themselves, and the majority have 
little real touch with Americans. This applies to 
the smaller as well as the larger communities of 
our factory towns. 

There is, however, another and far better type 
of Greek colony, where the Greeks are both com- 
paratively few in number and the majority are 
not low class day laborers, but engaged in busi- 
ness. As a result, most of the Greeks in such 
places prove themselves enterprising business men, 
gain the respect of their customers and neighbors, 
and become really assimilated with American life 
as useful citizens. Such are the communities of 
the cities of the South and also in other sections 
of the country. 

We will briefly touch on two of these star com- 
munities, and describe more at length a third. 
For the first we will again give Canoutas' account.^ 


"Founded in 1907 and containing about 500 com- 
patriots^ it is, perhaps, the most perfect of the Greek 

1 Pages 389-390. 



communities in America. The Greek business con- 
cerns in this city, especially the confectionery stores, 
are among the finest in America, calling forth the 
praise and admiration of the Americans. The pro- 
prietors of these and almost all the Greeks here re- 
joice in a very excellent reputation. Their small but 
beautiful church in Byzantine style is one of the fin- 
est Greek churches in America. This was completed 
in April, 1909, as is shown by the inscription on the 
comer-stone, 'This All-Venerable Temple of the 
Theotokos, the Piety and Patriotism of the Greeks 
Erected April, 1909.' It is a noteworthy fact that 
the University of Minnesota claimed the first piece 
of land acquired by the Greek community, and brought 
suit: but an agreement was reached out of court, that 
our people should for a sum of money transfer their 
property elsewhere. So they bought another lot and 
built their church. The pastor of this community 
since its founding has been the Rev. Archimandrite 
Kyrillos Vapheiadakes, graduate in Divinity of the 
National University, a mild and agreeable gentleman, 
enjoying the greatest veneration from his entire 



This community of about 600 Greeks, which 
rejoices in the honor of counting among its mem- 
bers those of the Royal Legation of Greece, is, 
says Canoutas, "One of the most peace loving and 
progressive in America, showing none of those 
absurdities which are usually to be seen in some 
of the other communities and colonies.*' Some 
two or three of the Greeks of the cultured class 
and others, whom I have met, have evinced little 


respect for the Greek priests. "A money grasp- 
ing lot, unspiritual, not missionaries," they have 
told me. And I fear this is all too just a judg- 
ment upon some. But there is one priest whom 
even the most rabid spoke of with respect, and that 
is the pastor of the community at the Capitol, the 
Archimandrite Joachim Alexopoulos. 


The third smaller community we select is Bir- 
mingham. This is typical of the Greek colonies 
of the South. Savannah and Atlanta are just 
as flourishing and would have done just as well. 
Now our purpose in these three chapters has been 
to give a complete and properly proportioned view 
of Greek life in America. For this purpose the 
account of Birmingham is as equally important as 
those of Chicago and Lowell. But it need not 
be as lengthy as those other two, for the very 
reason that the praiseworthy condition of the 
Greeks in Birmingham contains little unusual to 
the American mind, and little that is peculiarly 
Greek except the business enterprise. We will 
state, then, simply the bare facts, which show 
that an uncongested colony of this intelligent and 
enterprising race of immigrants, under normal 
conditions and fair treatment, wins its place as a 
thoroughly respectable and beneficial adjunct to 
an American city. 

In the city of Birmingham, with its 13S000 (in 
1900 there were but 88000) dwell about 900 



Greeks. Also as members of the community there 
are 800 more in the city of Ensley eight miles 
out. The Greek families of Birmingham number 

Here is a list of the shops, etc.: S wholesale 
fruit, 1 hotel, 12 high class restaurants and lunch 
rooms, 34 smaller lunch rooms, 40 fruit stores and 
stands, 6 confectioneries, 4 billiard and pool rooms, 
3 saloons, 10 shoe shine places, 2 bakeries, 1 bar- 
ber shop, 1 tailor shop and 1 iSsh market. 

The Hotel yclept "Reliance" is a good one of 
some forty or fifty rooms and restaurant, directly 
opposite the railroad depot, and patronized by 
drummers and other Americans. As we mentioned 
above the establishment in the south of Greek 
restaurants, well kept, decently provisioned, has 
relieved (so testify the gastronomically inclined 
traveling salesmen) a well nigh intolerable con- 

Twenty odd years ago there came to this city, 
seeking for better opportunities, ten Greeks. 
They were : Christos Tsempelis or Zebel, Nicholas 
Kollias, Alex. Kontos, Panaiotis Kontos, Konst. 
Pantazes, Christos Collias the brothers Kostouros 
or Costello, and the brothers Papageorgios. All 
of these immigrants, as well as many another Greek 
who came afterward, are now prosperous. 

Seven of the Birmingham Greeks at the present 
time have property, real and personal, amounting 
to over $40000. Ten more are worth between 
$15000 and $40000. Ten more $5000 to $15000. 


The rest of the storekeepers, most of whom have 
settled there in the past five or ten years, make 
for the most part a good living, as do also their 

Unlike the Greeks of most of the colonies that 
we have described in previous chapters, those of 
Birmingham do not congregate in one particular 
section of the city, but they own or rent their 
houses and lodgings anywhere just like ordinary 
mortals, and very Americanly comfortable are 
some of these homes. 

In addition to this there is in Birmingham not 
one single cofi^ee house ! nor are there any Greek 
stores for exclusively Greek trade. They live and 
buy and sell just like the other Birminghamites. 

The Greek church at the comer of 19th Street 
and C Avenue is a wooden structure but well 
equipped. It cost $10000. Of its former pas- 
tor, says the "Greek- American Guide," "The Rev. 
Arch. Kallinikos Kanellas is a very sympathetic 
and reverend old man of whom it is possible to 
say that of the Greek clergy in America he is the 
most — ^shall we say ^disinterested' ? The Greek 
word is a dandy, a<^tAoxpi7fiaTOTaTo?, (literally, *not 
loving of riches'). Plutarch used to use that word. 
The present pastor, the Arch. G. Smymakes, is a 
most learned man, a good linguist, and the author 
of several books. He came from a monastery of 
Mt. Athos and has traveled much in the east. In 
addition to his usual duties he lectures every Sun- 
day evening to his people on various subjects — 


religious, historical, hygienic, etc. These lectures 
are given in the Greek parish house, which con- 
sists of the pastor's apartments upstairs, and 
downstairs a well furnished assembly room, one of 
the best small halls in the city. Here the regular 
community meetings are held. 

The Birmingham Greek men learn English in 
the evening schools, and the children attend the 
public schools. 

In the summer of 1909 a few young Greeks sug- 
gested the organization of a society for the young 
men employees of the stores of Greeks. It was 
thereupon organized, with the name of "Young 
Greeks' Progressive Society of Birmingham." 
Its purpose was mutual protection and assistance, 
better acquaintance, drilling, athletics, etc. In 
1911 it included about 160, almost all the young 
Greek men of the city. And marvelous to relate, 
all work in perfect harmony! The treasury had 
then about $3000 in it, and they were planning to 
get a g3rmnasium. This is pretty good for only 
two years. 

The young Greeks of Birmingham enthusiastic- 
ally enjoy the national and local celebrations, when 
they can parade with their American brothers. 
Most of the Greeks who have been in Birmingham 
over five years are naturalized and take a great 
interest in politics. They have, of course, a 
branch of the Pan-Hellenic Union, and are plan- 
ning a Greek school. 



Before closing the chapter with an account of 
one more community, let us remind the reader of 
that one other large and important class of Greek 
colonies, or rather of groups of individuals — we 
mean those thousands of Greek men scattered 
everywhere throughout every state in the Union, 
by ones, twos, tens, or a few more. Such isolated 
Greeks, though ever remaining devoted sons of 
Hellas, become, because of their very isolation 
from their fellow countrymen, quickly assimilated 
into American life, and are everywhere respected 
as enterprising business men and good fellows. 


And now let us close our tale of the Greeks in 
America with a description of that unique settle- 
ment of Hellenes at Tarpon Springs, on the shores 
of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida. Unique it is, not 
typical, in America. While in many another com- 
munity we find much that is quaintly Greek, it is 
ever mingled with its American setting, and often- 
times chilled by an American climate — all breathes 
of the immigrant. At Tarpon Springs you are 
carried back to the shores of the Mediterranean; 
you feel yourself in sunny Argolis. There all the 
quaint customs of Hellas are observed untram- 
melled; yet there also the Greeks have proved 
themselves public spirited American citizens. 

On the warm shores of the Gulf, in a little town 
of 4000, is this interesting settlement of SOOO 


Greeks, one half the total population. It is a 
colony of sponge fishers. Nearly all the Greeks 
there are engaged in this. The colony dates from 
only 1905, when the sponges were first discovered. 
At once the Greeks hastened hither from all parts 
of the United States and elsewhere, imagining the 
chance for fabulous wealth. At first, because of 
their inexperience in the work and because of the 
big output and consequent decline in prices, things 
looked dark, but recently the industry has picked 
up and all is well again. 

The foundationstone of the Greek church was 
laid with great solemnity on October 10th, 1909^ 
and the community recognized by the state, duly 
incorporated under the title of "Greek Orthodox 
Community of Tarpon Springs." The priest in 
charge is the Rev. Christy Angelopoulos, who 
T:hough perhaps no great scholar, has proven him- 
self a devoted shepherd, honored by his flock. 

When you alight at the railroad station, you 
are struck by the Greek signs printed along with 
the English, announcing the time of departing 
trains. The Greek church, the club house, the 
really oriental coffee houses with the tables out of 
doors, the Greek signs on the stores along the 
streets — all serve to make the visitor feel that a 
bit of Hellas has been set down in our country. 
Greek flags float beside our own. Along the 
quays ride at anchor numbers of queer diving 
boats, painted in striking colors and constructed 
on Greek models. In these curious craft the 


Greeks put out into the gulf and bring home the 
sponges. When the storms drive the boats to 
port, the harbor is a scene of activity, and the 
tables in front of the coffee houses are thronged 
with boisterous, jovial men, playing games, 
smoking water pipes^ and drinking coffee. 

The Greeks here are highly respected and be- 
loved by their American fellow, citizens, with 
whom they mingle freely. And, as elsewhere, they 
love to parade with them on Fourth of July and 
other times. 

Let us imagine ourselves there on the Feast of 
the Epiphany in January, 191^. There is a 
spectacle like that in the harbor of Syra on this 
great feast day, but to be seen in its outdoor cere- 
mony nowhere in America except Tarpon Sprmgs. 
The church is packed. After the celebration of 
the Divine Liturgy, the priest in full vestments 
goes to the center of the nave, where stands a 
vessel of water, which with solemn chant he blesses. 
'Tis the commemoration of the Baptism of our 
Blessed Lord in Jordan, when by the Father and 
the Holy Ghost were manifested forth His Deity. 
The parishioners are sprinkled with the holy 
water, and they drink of it, and fill bottles to take 
home with which to bring blessings on their houses. 
The throng passes out of the church and forms 
the procession, led by the Tarpon Springs Comet 
Band. Next comes the priest, and on either side 
of him (on this particular date) two guests of 
the community, priests of the Anglican Commun- 


ion, the rector of Tarpon Springs, and the Phil- 
hellenic rector of the Church of the Redeemer, 
Brookljm,^ who has traveled all the way south to 
participate in this ceremony. Behind them march 
a couple of Hellenes, bearing the flags of the two 
lands of the free. The great procession moves 
down Orange Street to Safi^ord Avenue and then 
to Tarpon Avenue to the bayou. On either hand 
the shops and houses are decked with greens and 
flowers and flags, and the public wharf of the 
bayou has the finest decorations of any year. 
Moving close to the edge of the pier, the priest 
reads the Holy Gospel account of Our Lord's bap- 
tism with the singing of hymns, while in his hand 
he carries a small gutta-percha cross trimmed with 
silver. Out in the water are boats and in them 
stand the young Greeks who have been chosen 
to dive for the cross. . . . Suddenly the band 
ceases playing and the chanting stops, and the 
little cross goes flying over the water. There is 
a great splash as eight divers plunge after it. 
For twenty minutes they keep diving. At last 
Stathes Klonares, a "skin diver" of the Mediter- 
ranean from Kalymos, Turkey, who has been at 
the bottom for nearly five minutes, comes up and 
holds aloft the cross, his face gleaming with 
triumph and reverence. Amid loud applause and 
confusion the procession forms again ; and, led by 
the victorious diver with the cross borne high above 

s The Rev. Thomas J. Lacey, Ph.D., to whom I am in- 
debted for most of the materials for this description. 


his head, they march back to the church, where 
the crowd disperses. 

That evening you are taken by the hospitable 
Greeks to the Orpheum Theater, where you wit- 
ness, to quote the programme, a "Second Repre^ 
sentation for the Greek Ecumenical Patriarch of 
Constantinople by Amateurs, Part I: 'The Hero- 
dias,' a Tragic Monologue. Part II: 'Athanasios 
Diakos,' a National Drama from the Great Greek- 
Turkish War, in 8 acts. Part III : *The Scandal 
of the Community of Vorprassion.' " And the 
music is furnished by a Greek orchestra of flute, 
two mandolins, sautour and guitar. 

Or perhaps in addition to all the other hospit- 
able entertainment, you were fortunate enough to 
be invited along with the distinguished guests to 
tiie Hellenic-American Political Club, which was 
entertaining the Pinellas County Commissioners. 
If so, you heard the following speech, which I 
quote verbatim from the Tarpon Springs Leader 
as a fitting close to this last chapter on the life 
of the immigrants, showing the Greeks' ideal of 
American citizenship. It was the address of wel- 
come by the k. George Meindanes, president of 
the Greek community. 

"There are rare but beautiful moments in the life 
of a man^ the moments that remind him of the higher 
and nobler purposes he is called to accomplish in the 
long run of a lifetime. This is one of these moments 
that fills with joy my heart. And it is not only be- 
cause I have seen the great confluence of the Greeks 


celebrating this memorial day^ but much more because 
I see our American fellow-citizens to concur in the ob- 
servation of this day and share our joy^ and because 
I get an opportunity to voice out the principles on 
which this club is founded and around which its or- 
bit is delineated. 

**To love one's country is the ideal virtue that en- 
nobles a man^ and a true patriot finds always occasion 
to show his patriotic spirit^ regardless as to whether 
his country is in a war or in time of peace. His first 
and last duty^ when the call to the arms comes^ is to 
shed his blood fighting for the just cause of his coun- 
try. But in time of peace also^ patriotism is as much 
needed for the country as ambition for an individual. 
For in this century a world-wide and continuous strug- 
gle to prevail is going on^ not only among the individ- 
uals^ but even in a higher scale^ among the communi- 
ties^ states^ and nations^ and a citizen's ambitions and 
aspiring to see the town in which he lives, his state, 
and his nation, not only thriving and rival to the others, 
but leadin'g the way to the progress and affluence, 
must lend a willing hand to its upbuilding and to the 
judicious management of home affairs. If my mem- 
ory serves me right, the Athenian, the first lawgiver 
that history speaks of, had passed in Athens a law de- 
creeing that every citizen of Athens should take part 
either with one political party or another, and he who 
remained indifferent was considered dishonest and a 
traitor. And he was right about it, for any man who 
lives in a town and takes no interest whatever in the 
welfare of it, which much depends on its good or bad 
management of its affairs, is not worthy of living. 

''It is true that all of us cannot take part in this 
management of the political affairs, yet we have a 


voice in it through our vote^ and we are instrumental 
in the election of those who look after the public in- 
terests. But^ gentlemen^ the right of suffrage^ which 
all the people all over the civilized world enjoy, some- 
times and in some cases resembles a knife given to a 
kid as a toy thing to play with. It hurts, and it 
hurts awfully. 

"Therefore I think the existence of the political 
clubs to be indispensable, in order to educate the 
masses and prevent a gross wrong in the use of the 
vote. With this object in view this club was estab- 
lished, its principal aim being the education of the 
masses, and, as I had many a time occasion to say, 
this club was not established in order to create a 
faction or oppose any one, but to cooperate in the 
upbuilding of the town and the state. And no wrong- 
doer shall find harbor in this club, but he shall be 
turned willingly over to the proper authorities to be 
dealt with by the law accordingly. 

*'It is our earnest desire to see competent men hold 
their respective offices, and not to discourage them in 
their noble efforts. 

"On behalf of the members of this club, I thank 
you, gentlemen." 

And Solon's scion ceased, and Commissioner 
S. S. Coachman of Green Springs made fitting 


We have finished the tale of the Greek immi- 
grant in America. The two final chapters, telling 
of the non-immigrant Greeks who have become 
famous in America, have only an indirect con- 
nection with the subject of the immigrant 
proper, as graphically showing the possibilities in 
the Greek character under normal conditions. 
The conditions under which the Greek immigrant 
is forced to struggle, as we have seen, are any- 
thing but normal. Before leaving him, therefore, 
let us ask and try to answer two important ques- 
tions: Is this a permanent migration? And, 
what are we Americans going to do about it? 

Do the Greeks stay permanently in America? 
The statement has been made more than once by 
immigration experts as well as laymen that they 
do not stay. There seems to be an idea, found 
even in United States official quarters that the 
Greek comes here, makes money, and then goes 
home, taking his money to Greece forever. Un- 
fortunately for poor Greece, this is absolutely the 
opposite of the truth. Probably most Greeks do 
come to America with this purpose, but very few 
are ever able to accomplish it. The Greek immi- 
grant does not go back, except for visits; he 



comes and stays. This Is an important statement 
of fact, and needs to be emphasized for the very 
reason that it Is contrary to the general opinion. 
One cause of this mistaken opinion Is the plain 
record of immigration statistics, which show a 
large number of Greeks returning home each year. 
These figures are perfectly correct ; but the point is, 
such returning Greeks are off for a visit only — few 
of these ever stay in Greece. Then, too, tourists 
have reported that they frequently run across in 
Greece Greeks that have returned from America. 
This also is quite true. But those very Greeks, 
though perhaps they would not admit it even to 
themselves, are in Greece only temporarily; in- 
evitably they will come back again to America, 
and that soon. Pretty surely the same Is true of 
the large majority of those Greeks who went back 
to fight in the Balkan war. 

The emigrant from Greece usually borrows 
money — a minimum $100, his passage fare, and 
the law-required sum for his pocket on landing. 
Or If he is so unusually lucky as to own this sum, 
it probably is his whole capital. He reaches the 
promised land. He works hard to send back what 
he borrowed and a good deal more to keep those 
who depend on him at home f^om starving. All 
this takes a number of years. At last he has 
saved up some money, be it a hundred or a thou- 
sand dollars. He goes back to Greece and spends 
most of it. Then, taking his family if he has one, 
he returns to America. Why does he return? 


Simply because (ask any of the thousands of 
Greeks that have done so) a Greek who has once 
lived in this country cannot stay satisfied in 
Greece. Here he has made new acquaintances; 
there, after a prolonged absence, he finds strang- 
ers. He discovers that in Greece his hard-earned 
money will not enable him to set up any kind of 
business — ^business is carried on by the better 
classes, not the peasant. In Greece no credit is 
allowed : credit was what enabled him to start and 
keep running in America. In fact, American busi- 
ness methods will not fit into Greece at all. He 
finds himself no better off than before he first emi- 
grated, in fact much worse. And so it is that 
those immigrants who in their disheartenment wish 
to go home to Greece, cannot; and those who in 
their first flush of success do go, find it impossible 
to stay. This fact is all too sadly known in Greece 
and by the leading Greeks here. And still the 
homeland Greeks, lured by the garnished romances 
of our wonderland keep building their air castles 
and set sail. And still the bitter disillusionments 
breed either heroes or cynics. Thus far the mi- 
gration has proven irrevocable. The Greeks are 
here and here to stay. What are we Americans 
going to do about it? 

The first thing we must do is really to under- 
stand this interesting people, and to regard them 
not as mere immigrants from southeastern Europe, 
but as a distinct and separate race. It is with 
this object that this book has been written — to 


encourage a full, unprejudiced, and sympathetic 
understanding of our Hellenic fellow citizens. 
Moreover, it is very important — ^more so with the 
Greeks than with most nationalities — ^to have a 
good knowledge of the history of their race, 
mediaeval as well as modern; and also of the life 
in Greece of the immigrants, before they sailed for 
America. To guide the reader in obtaining this 
knowledge, I have appended a bibliography (Ap- 
pendix B), carefully selected (for much inac- 
curate and unfair has been published about the 
Greeks). Also I have prepared and hope it will 
be published shortly a companion volume, giving 
this essential historical background. 

Ffhilanthropically inclined people ask in this 
way, "What can we do to help the Greek?" This 
is not, however, the proper question at all. 
Rather they should ask, "What can we Americans 
do that the Greek may be given a fair and equal 
chance to help himself?" For first and foremost 
it is for Americans, who are true and unselfish 
Americans, to remove these obstacles which, in this 
land where all are supposed to be free, impede the 
Greek's progress. It is for us to cease blaming 
the foreigner for what is not his fault, but ours. 
Can America expect the foreigner not to be af- 
fected by those faults and failings which are all 
too common in Americans: lack of idealism and 
worship of commercialism, laxity in law, laxity in 
morals, laxity in religion — and that, too, when the 
foreigner is placed in contact with the worst side 


of American life and has little opportimity to 
appreciate the best side? 

Chiefest among all obstacles which impede his 
progress is the rank prejudice against the for- 
eigner in general, found especially in the half edu- 
cated and snobbish "middle class" Americans, — 
and the parents or grandparents of many of these 
latter were themselves foreign immigrants. "The 
scum of the earth,'* "the off-scouring of Europe," 
are terms of abuse commonly used in speaking of 
immigrants to-day. With like appellations Amer- 
icans used to dub the Grerman, the Irish, and 
the Scandinavian. As a matter of fact, the recent 
immigrants, just as the earlier ones were, are not 
the "scmn," uncultured though they be, but for 
the most part the strongest, the bravest, the most 
enterprising. However, all this belongs to a dis- 
cussion of immigration in general — and we might 
go on thus indefinitely.^ 

1 For the sanest and most suggestive treatment of the 
problem of what to do for and with the immigrant in 
general, let me refer the reader to the last chapter in the 
two following books: "Our Slavic Fellow-Citizen," by Prof. 
Emily G. Balch (New York, 1910), and "The New Im- 
migration," by Peter Roberts, Ph.D. (Macmillan, 191^). 

However, let me emphasize again that it is a wrong 
method to deal with or study the immigrants in general. 
We should learn to distinguish the separate peoples, and 
treat each by itself, each as a totally distinct social phe- 
nomenon, with a distinct historical background, which also 
should be known. This method is adopted in the "Report 
of Commission on Eastern Orthodox Churches' Immigrants" 
of the (Episcopal) Department of New England (1913), 
which all interested in the immigration problem should 
read. (See Bibliography, Appendix B, IV.) 


We have given various general and specific sug- 
gestions in the pages of this book on how we ought 
to treat our Greek neighbors. Let us by way of 
final summary emphasize the following four, which 
every American of the right sort may do his part 
in fulfilling: — 

1. Do your utmost to remove in your commu- 
nity this un-American and un-Christian prejudice 
against the Greek. Treat him openly yourself as 
an equal, and thus by your example others will be 
led to treat him as an equal, — for in very truth 
the average Greek is the equal of the average 

2. Honor and express your honor for and seek 
to preserve that pride of the Greek in the history 
of his race, the beauty of his language, the cus- 
toms and traditions of his fatherland, the ortho- 
doxy of his church,' — for it is these that have im- 
planted and preserved in him patriotism, aspira- 
tion for an education, duty to family, benevolence 
for the afilicted, courtesy, temperance. To strive 
to obliterate the ideals of the fatherland that we 
may turn out an unadulterated "American" is 
worse than foolish. The right kind of assimila^ 
tion will certainly not be accomplished, as Profes- 
sor Balch well expresses it, by the American say* 
ing to the foreigner, '*We two shall be one, and I 
will be that one." Let us rather preserve for this 
transplanted tree the goodly portion of its native 
soil, and add to it that which is good in Ameri- 
canism. The combination will furnish to Ameri- 


can citizenship, nay is already furnishing, a very 
valuable species. 

8. Cooperate with the Greek leaders and organ- 
izations in all schemes of uplift for the Greeks — 
the uplift of the Greeks is the raison d*etre of most 
Greek organizations. For example, when we give 
the use of our public school buildings for Greek 
evening schools — ^as we always should do — ^let the 
leading Greeks of the community decide with us 
the best courses, methods, and teachers. In sani- 
tary reforms, ask the advice and cooperation of 
the leaders — and so in all civic reforms. To 
ignore utterly the regular Greek organization in 
dealing with matters which affect Greeks, is as un- 
wise and insulting for example, as it is to invite a 
troop of boy scouts or a fraternal order to 
participate in a Memorial Day parade and ignore 
the well drilled Greek military company of the 
city — a pretty way to foster citizenship. More- 
over, the same plan should be followed by the 
United States and the state governments in plan- 
ning legislation or reforms that affect the immi- 
grant. Let them take into confidence and act 
with the advice and cooperation of the national 
organization of the Greeks (and those of other 
foreign peoples). Is it not foolish to make long 
investigations and act on them without the help 
of those who know the conditions best and are in 
the position to do the most effective work? 

5. Finally, that which really counts most, as it 
does in all else, — our personal touch of man with 


man. Let those Americans who stand for that 
true ideal of Americanism which the Greek ex- 
pected to find before he came to our shores — ^that 
which is lofty without vanity, free without license, 
unselfish without discrimination — ^let such men and 
women learn to know their Greek neighbors by 
personal touch and sincere friendship; and, if 
need arise, by doing for them the good turns, not 
of "charity" but of friendship. Only so can the 
Greeks learn to value the ideals of the true 



In these two final chapters we shall tell the 
stories of a number of Greek boys and men who 
during the past century came to our country, not 
as immigrants in the proper sense of the term; 
were brought up or came to live in entirely Ameri- 
can surroundings; and became justly famous in 
American life, leaving their mark on our nation. 
These biographical sketches will culminate in that 
Hellene of the Hellenes and benefactor of America 
and the world, Michael Anagnos, who became the 
beloved son-in-law of our great Americans, Dr. 
Samuel Gridley Howe and Julia Ward Howe. 

I give these accounts, which have never before 

been collected and much of them never published, 

not only because of their historical interest, but 

to show how splendidly a Greek may develop if 

given the proper opportunities. Many of these 

Greeks had no better start than the average Greek 

immigrant of the immigration period to America. 

Thus we Americans may realize what stuff Greeks 

are made of; and may we not look forward to 

like attainments by some of our present Greek 

fellow citizens? 



There is a tradition that has it — and I am told 
that a book has been written to prove it — ^that 
Christophoros Kolymvos (or, as we Americans 
call him, Columbus) was the first Greek that 
landed in America. Alas, I fear that this tradi- 
tion is of mythical orgin. There was a real Greek, 
however, in the band of one of the earliest dis- 
coverers of our continent, and his name and auto- 
graph a friend of mine once ran across in a stand- 
ard American history, but has been unable to find 
it again. <I doubt not that there were a number of 
real Greeks early and late in the expeditions that 
have come to our shores whose names are lost to 
sight. Greeks are generally to be found, Ody»* 
seus-like, where there is any wandering being 
done. In 1760 a Greek married the daughter of 
the governor of Costa Rica, and named many 
places after his native spots. Then in 1767 an in- 
teresting migration took place. An uprising in 
southern Morea was feared by the Turks, so they 
killed the archbishop and treated other prominent 
people with utmost severity. An English oflScer, 
John ThombuU happened to be in the port of 
Karoni at the time with his ship. He bought 
from the authorities for 1200 pilasters the privi- 
lege of carrying away a large number of Greeks, 
whom he took to Florida. These Greeks were 
Mainates. I have been unable to discover any 
further traces of this colony. It would be very 
interesting to learn what became of them and their 
descendants. On the other comer of the future 


United States, coming, I suppose, by the back 
way of Behring Strait, landed the first governor 
of Alaska, a Peloponnesian Greek named Eustotias 
Juanobitos Delaref. 

Passing now out of the mists of American an- 
tiquity down to the historic times of the 46th year 
since our Declaration of Independence and the 
second since the Greek — 1822, let us tell the story 
of that remarkable list of orphans of the terrible 
and bloody Greek war of Independence (1821- 
1828). I shall mention nine (there must have 
been others) whose names, though perhaps now 
unknown, were none the less worthy. The first 
two mentioned do not, perhaps, properly belong 
in this chapter for they returned to Greece; but 
I will not omit them. 

Alexander George Paspatis was bom in the 
island of Chios (or Scio) in 1814. After the 
fiendish massacre of the population by the Turks 
in 1822, he was carried with the other captives to 
Smyrna and exposed in the Turkish slave market 
for sale. There his own mother, who had miracu- 
lously escaped and had wandered alone up and 
down the coast of Asia Minor, saw him and bought 
him for the only two pieces of money she had 
managed to save. Charitable Americans em- 
barked him on a ship and for two years he found 
a kind home in the family of Marshall P. Wilder 
in Boston. He fitted in the Mt. Pleasant Prepar- 
atory school and in 1831 graduated from Amherst. 
Never has Amherst had a worthier graduate. He 


returned to Europe, took an extended course in 
medicine at Paris and Pisa, and for years was one 
of the most distinguished practitioners in Con- 
stantinople. Retiring from practice in 1879 he 
lived in Athens till his death in 1891. The notice 
in the Amherst obituary record says, "A profound 
and accurate student, he was an almost unrivalled 
authority on Byzantine history and archeology 
and an eminent glossologist. Master of sixteen 
languages, his literary productions were mostly 
given to the world in English, French and Greek." 
Both in Constantinople and Athens he was a mem- 
ber and sometimes founder of many philanthropic 
societies and institutions. "He, with five other 
scholars, planted in 1861 the ^ikoXoyucos 'EAAiyvwcos 
2vAAoyo9, a society which is now reckoning its mem- 
bers by the thousands and has planted nearly two 
hundred schools in the Ottoman Empire and by 
its literary contributions has acquired a world- 
wide fame. He was always a devoted member 
of the Eastern Orthodox Church, and believed 
that whatever was imperfect therein could be re- 
formed or remedied from within and not from with- 

Evangelides was the other war orphan, educated 
in the United States, that returned. He opened 
a successful school in his native Syra and brought 
there the American idea, novel to his compatriots, 
of the value of real estate, by which he became 
rich. His neighbors dubbed him the "Greek 
Yankee." He was, says Atlantis^ Bryant's Greek 


boy. He had a son who was a journalist in New 
York for many years.^ 

Captcdn Greorge Musalas Colvocoresses, U. S. 
N., was another survivor of the massacre of Chios. 
His father, escaping to the Austrian consulate, 
was able to ransom his family, though Greorge saw 
his uncle killed and his aged grandmother beaten 
to death before he reached safety. He, only six 
years old, with nine other Chiote boys was placed 
on board an American brig bound for Baltimore. 
On the voyage he was cared for and taught Eng- 
lish by the mate of the brig. On his arrival he 
appears to have made an especially good impres- 
sion upon the committee of influential men who 
interested themselves in these boys, and Gen. Har- 
per procured from President Monroe the promise 
of a cadetship at West Point for the little lad. 
Attracted by the accounts in the newspapers, Capt. 
Alder Partridge, head of a military academy in, 
Norwich, Vermont, took the boy and educated and 
provided for him. Later he entered the navy, 
where he served the rest of his life with honor. He 
sailed in various important naval expeditions all 
over the world, and in the Civil War commanded 
the U. S. S. Supply and later the Saratoga, when 
he won the repeated thanks of Admiral Dahlgren 
in general orders and the commendation of the 

1 This information is from Julia Ward Howe's "From 
the Oak to the Olive." She had known him in America. 
This book mentions meeting several of these American ed- 
ucated Greeks, and also our famous Philhellenic priest. Dr. 


Secretary of the Navy for his "zeal and good serv- 
ice to the country." In 1866 he was retired with 
the rank of captain and lived till his death in 1872 
with his family in Litchfield, Connecticut. 

His son, the present Rear Admiral George 
Partridge Colvocoresses who kindly furnished me 
with the information about his father and others, 
including a copy of biographical sketches about 
to be published in Greek in the annual Chronicles 
of Chios, has made an eminent record in the Navy. 
He first saw service for two years in the Civil War 
as captain's clerk to his father. In the Spanish 
War he was executive oflScer of the U. S. S. Con- 
cord at the battle of Manila Bay. Admiral Dewey 
appointed him executive oflScer of his flagship, and 
it was he who commanded the Olympiads battalion 
in the several ovations that welcomed the hero in 
New York, Washington, and Boston. Upon pro- 
motion to captain he was made commandant of 
midshipmen in the Naval Academy. After forty- 
eight years of active service he was retired with 
the rank of rear admiral. 

George Sirian, gunner, U. S. N., a young boy 
in one of the Greek islands at the outbreak of the 
Greek revolution, was set adrift in a boat by his 
mother to escape a band of Turks, while she her- 
self remained to await her fate and attract atten- 
tion from the child. The boat happened to be 
picked up by one of our cruisers. The boy en- 
tered the navy and became by good conduct a 
warrant oflScer. 


Greorge Marshall^ whose daughter Slrian mar- 
ried, was a Greek who published probably the first 
manual of naval gunnery used in our service. 

Photius Fiske was another war orphan, who be- 
came a chaplcdn in the U. S. Navy. On his deatii 
he left a small bequest for the anti-slavery cause, 
some of which went to aid the family of John 

Athanasius Cbloveloni was bom near fated Mes- 
solonghi in 1815. In the first year of the war 
his father and family were slain and the boy, six 
years old, was rescued and cared for by Capt. 
Nicholson of the U. S. S. Ontario^ then cruising 
in the Mediterranean. He lived the rest of the 
ninety-two years of his life in Brooklyn, and be- 
came one of the most prominent members of the 
Masonic fraternity, being a lecturer and organ- 
izer and a 33rd degree Mason. Like most of the 
Greeks mentioned in this chapter, he married an 

Colonel Lucas (Loukas) Miltiades Miller, Mem- 
ber of Congress from Oshkosh, Wisconsin, was bom 
in Laciadia in 1824. He was the son of a Greek 
chieftain who was killed in the war. Soon after 
his birth his mother died, and a woman found the 
baby in an abandoned town shortly after a battle 
had taken place in its streets. Subsequently she 
applied to the brave American Philhellene, Col. J, 
P. Miller, who was fighting in the Greek army, for 
assistance.^ Miller adopted the child, brought 

2 Mr. Franklin B. Sanborn told me that one day he (Mr. 



him to Montpelier, Vermont, and gave him a home 
and an education. At the age of twenty-one he 
had passed his law examinations and was admitted 
to the bar. Soon after the young lawyer moved 
to Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and took up farming, where 
for the rest of his life he was one of the most in- 
fluential men of the city and state. He was made 
a colonel in the Mexican War, and was elected to 
the 52nd Congress, being nominated without his 
knowledge and against his wishes. In Congress 
he took an active part and his speeches attracted 
considerable attention. He died only seven or 
eight years ago. 

Professor John (Joannes) Celivergos Zachos, 
M. D.,^ late curator of the Cooper Union, New 
York, was bom in Constantinople, 1820. His 
father was one of the "merchant princes" of the 
city, and an interpreter of the Sultan's court, 
ranking in the diplomatic corps of the Turkish 
government. His mother was a woman of superior 
education and connected with the best Phanariote 

Sanborn) was calling on the daughter of CoL J. P. Miller, 
Mrs. Keith, in Chicago, and there, hanging over the mantle- 
piece, was the sword of Lord Byron. See "History of 
Montpelier," p. ^9, where it is told that Miller took the 
sword, Dr. Howe the helmet and Finlay, the historian, 
something else of the dead poet, as trophies. Col. J. P. 
Miller was one of the most famous of the Americans who 
fought on the Greek side in the protracted struggle for 

8 Dr. Zachos' daughter. Miss M. Helena Zachos, has 
kindly corrected for this account of her father the 
"Biographical Cyclopedia of Ohio^" vol. 6, pp. 135-155 
(1895), and added other facts. 


families, as the Mavrocordato and the Ipsilanti. 
The k. Zachos was one of the first Hetairists (the 
Greek secret societies conspiring for freedom), 
and at the opening of the War of Independence was 
betrayed and condemned to be beheaded, but by 
a large bribe managed to escape with his family. 
He fled to the north of Greece, where he devoted 
his fortune and life to the holy cause. He fell in 
an early battle among the mountains of Thessaly, 
where his little command was resisting a whole army 
of Turks. Thus were left his wife and the boy 
Joannes, three years old, and a baby girl. It was 
the indomitable spirit of the mother that brought 
the family and a large number of relatives and de- 
pendents safely through the years of war, in a 
country harried by a bloody enemy and a lawless 
soldiery of her own race. She always carried 
arms and trained her retainers and encouraged 
them in the fight. When dangers pressed too 
heavily on the mainland, she bought a vessel and 
sought safety among the islands and inlets of the 

"Many of the interesting incidents of his childhood 
which Dr. Zachos remembered in his later years and 
related to his children happened while they were 
cruising in the -^gean Sea. They would stop occa- 
sionally at quiet and safe islands for food and water 
supplies^ or for longer stays if the Turks were afar. 
On one of these occasions the two children were dis- 
covered near the camp with short white clubs with 
which they were striking large white balls down a lit- 


tie hillside. The horrified nurse discovered that their 
playthings were the dried and bleached bones of some 
poor victims of the war. His first recollection of 
school was a very primitive scene. The school master 
sat mider a large &g tree with a group of small chil- 
dren seated before him in a semi-circle. He had a 
long^ tapering switch with which he kept order and 
spurred the inattentive ones. The tree was laden 
with rich ripe figs^ and from time to time this luscious 
fruit would drop in the midst of the little school. 
Then would ensue a grabbing and scrambling for a 
few seconds until the prize had disappeared into some 
eager mouth and order was restored by the long switch 
of the old pedagogue." * 

So passed the boy's life until he was ten years 
old. Soon after the end of the war his mother 
married again, Nikolaos KiHverges, secretary to 
President Capodistria. Dr. Howe, being brought 
into contact, in his business of mercy, with the 
stepfather, advised the kyria Zachos to send her 
boy to America to be educated, and promised to 
take care of him. Thus Howe himself brought the 
boy to America. For three years the mother paid 
all the expenses, until the extravagant court life 
of her husband, who became royal treasurer of 
King Otho, squandered her fortune. For the 
next two years his American friends paid young 
Zachos' expenses, and then at the age of fifteen 
he took upon himself the problem of self support 
and education, at first, as printer's boy, then at 

« Written bjr Miss Zachos. 


the Manual Labor College in Bristol, Pennsylvania, 
and then at Kenyon College, where he graduated 
in 1840. For three years and a half he studied 
medicine at Miami, at which time he was one of 
the founders of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. He 
did not, however, practice his profession, but took 
up teaching, becoming co-principal of a Young 
Ladies Academy in Ohio. In 1849 he married 
Miss Harriet Canfield. They had six children. 
In 1853 he was invited by Horace Mann to a pro- 
fessorship in Antioch College, Yellow Springs, 
Ohio. During the Civil War he offered himself 
for the service of the "Educational Commission of 
Boston and New York,'* organized to send men 
and women to care for and educate the "free men 
of the South." Next Dr. Zachos was appointed 
acting surgeon in the U. S. Army and assigned to 
the multifarious duties of superintendency and 
command of Paris Island, with a population of 
six hundred negroes, left by their former masters 
in greatest destitution. After two years of this 
work he broke down. He next was installed in the 
Unitarian pulpit at West Newton, Massachusetts. 
In 1866 he was appointed professor of rhetoric 
in the Meadville Theological School in Pennsyl- 
vania. Finally, in 1871, at the call of his intimate 
friend, Peter Cooper, he became curator of the 
Cooper Union in New York. Here Dr. Zachos 
passed the last twenty-seven years of his life and 
found his greatest field of labor and influence. 
His talent as a lecturer on the public platform 


and in the classroom was of marked value to this 
great institution, and he remained its literary head 
to the day of his death. One of the most interest- 
ing sides of this versatile, scholarly, brilliant, big 
hearted Greek was his close association with the 
literary men of New York: Bayard Taylor, Wil- 
liam Cullen Bryant, Charles Dana, and manv / 
others. y 

Professor Evangelinos Apostolides Sophocles, 
LL.D. (I quote all, except what is inserted in 
parenthesis, from a memoir in the records of the I i 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences) "was ^ 
bom in 1804 in the village of Tsangarada in 
Thessaly on the slope of Mount Pelion. His 
father's name was Apostolos, and thus he obtained 
the patronymic Apostolides. The name of Sopho- 
cles, by which he has always been known away from 
home, was given him in his youth by his teacher 
Gazes as a compliment to his scholarship. He 
spent his childhood in his Thessalian home. While 
still a boy he accompanied his uncle to Cairo, 
where he spent several years in the branch of the 
Sinaitic monastery of St. Catherine (of which his 
uncle was Hegumen), visiting also the principal 
monastery on Mt. Sinai itself. He returned to 
Thessaly in 1820, where he remained a year at 
school, chiefly studying Greek classic authors, un- 
der the instruction of several teachers of repute, 
especially Anthimos Gazes, who had been twenty- 
five years in Vienna. The breaking out of the 
Greek Revolution in 1821 closed this school, and 


Sophocles returned to the monastery of Cairo. 
After a few years he left the Sinaitic brotherhood 
on the death of his uncle, and became again a 
pupil of Gazes at Syra, where he became ac- 
quainted with the Rev. Josiah Brewer, a mission- 
ary of the American Board of Foreign Missions, 
who invited him to go to the United States, and by 
the advice of Gazes the invitation was accepted. 

"Sophocles arrived at Boston in 1828 and put 
himself under the tuition of Mr. Colton of Monson, 
Massachusetts. In 1829 he entered as freshman 
at Amherst College, but remained only a part of 
one year. He afterwards lived at Hartford and 
New Haven. All his earlier works were published 
at Hartford, where at one time he taught mathe- 
matics. In 1842 he came to Harvard College as 
tutor in Greek, and remained till 1845. He re- 
turned in 1847 to take the same office. Since that 
time the college apartment in which he died. No. 2 
Holworthy, was his only home" (serving as dining 
room and kitchen the greater part of the time, as 
well as lodging and study. In 1859 he was made 
assistant professor of Greek; and in 1860 a new 
professorship of Ancient, Byzantine, and Modern 
Greek was created for him, which he continued to 
fill until his death in 1883. This professorship 
has since been abolished. He received the honor- 
ary degree of A.M. from Yale and Harvard, and 
that of LL.D. from Western Reserve and Har- 

(He published a number of grammatical books, 



but his great work was the "Greek Lexicon of the 
Roman and Byzantine Periods from B. C. 146 to 
A. D. 1100." This tremendous work of 1187 
pages gives reference to 500 authors, not including 
those referred to of earlier periods. 

(Countless are the amusing anecdotes told at 
Harvard of this eccentric, cynical, soft-hearted, 
monk-like scholar, who seemed to belong to another 
age: his withering sarcasm in asking questions in 
the classroom; his total disregard for the usual 
methods of teaching; his love for children; his 
devotion to his chickens. These last he kept in 
a pen within hearing distance of his room. He 
had a name for each beloved hen or rooster, often 
the names of his good friends of the elite Cam- 
bridge circles. One day Anagnos was dining with 
him in his room. A hen was heard to cackle, and 
Sophocles looking at Anagnos observed, "That's 
Eliza'* — ^named after Mrs. Apthorpe.) 

"Professor Sophocles,'' continues the memoir of 
the Academy, "was a scholar of extraordinary at- 
tainments. His knowledge of the Greek literature 
in its whole length and breadth could hardly be 
surpassed, and he had much rare and profound 
erudition on many points on which western scholar- 
ship is most weak. On the other hand he treated 
the classic philology of (Jermany with neglect, if 
not with contempt, and he never learned German 
so as to read it with facility. But many things 
which are found in the works of German scholars 
came to Sophocles independently. He showed 


Kttle or no sympathy with the attempts to resus- 
citate the ancient forms of Greek in the literary 
language of the new kingdom of Greece; indeed, 
for this indifference, and for his general lack of 
interest in the progress of Greece since the Revolu- 
tion, he was often censured by his fellow country- 
men. But much of this, as well as much of his 
show of indifference to the ordinary calls of 
humanity, was a part of his habitual cynicism, 
which was quite as much affected as real. While 
he refused to take part in the ordinary charities, 
he was reaUy in his own way one of the most 
benevolent of men ; and it may be doubted whether 
there was another man in our community whose 
gifts bore so large a proportion to his personal 
expenses. Many are the poor who will miss his 
unostentatious benevolence now that he is gone. 

"Though he took little interest in any religious 
questions, he always remained faithful in name to 
the Greek Church in which he was bom. In later 
years he renewed his relations with the monks of 
Mount Sinai; and as his strength failed, he wan- 
dered back more and more in his thoughts to the 
Sacred Mountain. The monastery of St. Cath- 
erine was enriched by more than one substantial 
present by his kindness; and the pious monks 
offered solemn prayers on Mount Sinai daily for 
his recovery from his last sickness, and sent him 
their congratulations by Atlantic cable on his 
saint's day. Now that he has left us, we feel that 
a bond is suddenly broken which connected us with 


a world which lies beyond our horizon. Such a 
phenomenon as Sophocles is indeed rare in our 
academic circles, and we feel that it was a privilege 
to have him among us." 

Since the war time there have come to our 
shores a number of Greek gentlemen, who, though 
all may not be entitled to the distinction of famouSj 
yet deserve to be mentioned. Thus before we 
relate the story of that greatest of American- 
Hellenes, Michael Anagnos, let us make mention 
of some of these. 

^iieorge Constantine, bom at Athens, 1833, came 
to America in 1850, and graduated from Amherst 
in 1869, and Andover Theological Seminary in 
1862. The rest of his life, until his death in 
1892, was spent in Athens and Smyrna as a Prot- 
estant missionary — a sincere and devoted work in 
a wrong cause. 

^ Michael Kalopathakes, 1826-1906, came to 
America and was graduated at the Union Theolog- 
ical Seminary and also took a course in medicine; 
and then returned to Greece as a Protestant mis- 
sionary. He was steadfast to his mistaken ideal; 
and perhaps his steadfastness had a salutary in- 
fluence upon the Orthodox Church. He helped 
Dr. Howe during the Cretan War of '66-'68. 
His son, Demetrius, now at Athens, is an accom- 
plished scholar, graduate of Harvard, Ph.D. of 
Berlin, correspondent of the London Times and 
the Nation. 

Professor Andrew C. Zenos, D.D., LL.D., the 


present professor of Biblical Theology, McCor- 
mick Theological Seminary, Chicago ; former pro- 
fessor in Lake Forest University and in Hartford 
Theological Seminary, bom in Constantinople 
in 1855, is a well known scholar. Among many 
other works he translated and annotated Socrates, 
"Ecclesiastical History" for ShaflPs "Post Nicene 

John M. Rodonaki of Smyrna came to America 
in 1850 and was consul in Boston for twenty-two 
years. He was a respected merchant and a prom- 
inent Mason. He bequeathed most of his estate 
to the Boston Art Museum. 

And we might mention others, more or less well 
known, who are still living and in America: as 
Consul-General Botassi, of a Spetzian family 
famous for its admirals, who came to New York in 
1859 and has grown old in the Greek diplomatic 
service; Theodore B. Ion, D. C. L., former pro- 
fessor of Law in Boston University, writer on in- 
ternational law and Turkish literature; T. T. 
Timayenis, former teacher and historical writer 
and translator; Demetra Vaka (Mrs. Kenneth 
Brown), formerly on the staff of Atlantis, author 
and collaborator with her American husband of 
the wild and woolly tales, "Haremlik," "The 
Duke's Price,'' "In the Shadow of Islam," etc. ; 
Mrs. Julia D. Dragoumis, author of "Tales from 
a Greek Island," published first in the Atlantic 
Monthly; and Mrs. Seraphim G. Canoutas, 
scholar, musician, and writer, nee Euphrosyne 


Paleologos, scibn of the house of the last of the 
Byzantine emperors. 

Then there are a number of names we might re- 
peat, dating from 1860 to the present, of that 
class of wealthy aiid cultivated Greek gentlemen, 
directors in New York, Boston, and elsewhere of 
the great Greek commercial houses: as the world- 
famed Ralli Brothers,^ Choremi and Benaki, Live- 
rato Brothers, etc. This class of Greeks is found 
the world over. These gentlemen live like Ameri- 
cans and move in the best American society; and 
yet they are taking the lead at the present day in 
the noble work for the protection and uplift of 
their immigrant fellow countrymen. Of this class, 
for example, is the k. Sinadinos, president since 
1910 of the Pan-Hellenic Union. 

BThe Ralli were originally natives of Chios. The firm 
was founded in 1860, and is now supposed to be the largest 
commercial house in the world, llie headquarters are in 
London. Five years ago they had fifty branches in the 
United States. 



Michael Anagnost6poulos,^ or as he became 
known to Americans, Anagnos, was born Novem- 
ber 7th, 1837, in a mountain village of Epiros, 
called Papingo. His father was a hard working 
peasant, who had lived under the bloody Ali Pasha. 
We may glimpse the romantic homeland of the 
Epirote lad from Byron's picture. 

"No city's towers pollute the lovely view. 

Unseen is Janina, though not remote. 

Veiled by the screen of hills; here men are few. 

Scanty the hamlet, rare the lonely cot; 

But peering down each precipice, the goat 

Browseth, — and pensive o'er his scattered flock. 

The little shepherd in his white capote 

Doth lean his boyish form along the rock. 

Or in his cave awaits the tempest's short-lived shock." 

True Greek, the boy longed and labored for an 
education. He began in the little village school 
and used to pore over his lessons as he tended his 
father's flocks on the mountain side, or in the 
evening by the light of a pine torch. As he grew 

1 Compiled entirely from the 155 page Memoir of Anag- 
nos, published in 1907, the year after his death, by the 
Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind. 

See Frontispiece (Portrait of Anagnos) of our book. 



older, to support himself he also taught m his 
spare hours. His teacher advised him to go to 
Janina and try for a scholarship in the Zozimaea 
School. So one day he took his shepherd's stick 
and his little pack, containing only dry bread, and 
marched for sixteen hours through rain and storm 
to the famous Epirote capital. Passing among 
the first, he was aided by the great teacher Anas- 
tasios Sakellarion. As he was too poor to buy 
text books he used to copy them out by hand. At 
last his gymnasium course was worked through, 
and he achieved his longing by entering the Uni- 
versity of Athens. Of the struggles at the 
university writes his Boston sister-in-law, Mrs. 
Florence Howe Hall, "I have heard him tell the 
story of four students who lived together at Athens 
and possessed only one good coat among them, so 
that they were obliged to take turns in going out. 
I have always suspected that he was one of the 
devoted quartette." He worked his way by teach- 
ing languages and reading proof. He took his 
B. A. in philology, and also studied law.^ 

In 1861 Anagnos joined the staff of the Ethno- 
phylax (National Guard), the first daily paper of 
Athens, writing criticisms and translations and 
then political essays, and was shortly made editor- 
in-chief at the age of 24. This paper was started 

2 His friend, Mr. Frank B. Sanborn, in a speech at the 
Memorial exercises (see "Memoir," page 107), gives a de- 
tailed account of his university courses, taken from the 
actual certificates of the professors: Greek, Latin, history, 
mathematics, science, philosophy, etc. 


to advocate popular rights against the oppressive 
government of King Otho. Our youthful hero 
was one of the most active in this opposition, even 
going so far as to be instrumental in introducing, 
through Greneral Garibaldi and one of his sons, 
lodges of Free Masonry by the Scottish Rite as 
an element in the coming dethronement of the Ba- 
varian monarch. Twice he was put into prison. 
His ardent share in the bloodless revolution of 
1862 Anagnos in his later years spoke of with re- 
gret. At the beginning of the Cretan Revolution 
in 1866 Anagnos enlisted his pen in the cause of 
the devoted island; but his fellow editors of the 
Ethnophylax disagreed with him, and he resigned. 

Then it was that our great American, Dr. Howe, 
whom as yet Anagnos knew only by his former 
fame as a Philhellene, came to Greece to help the 
Cretans, and desiring to find a Greek secretary 
who should act with him in the work of the relief, 
was directed to the young ex-editor. He at once 
engaged him and left him part of the time in 
charge of the committee's affairs, while he himself 
visited schools, prisons and hospitals of Europe. 
As a reason for Dr. Howe's selection of Anagnos, 
Mr. Sanborn writes, "He had the strong, sincere 
qualities of the Epirote Greek, brought up in the 
simplicity of rural life and able to resist the temp- 
tations to intrigue and commercialism which beset 
the Phanariot and Peloponnesian Greek." 

When Dr. Howe returned to Boston, he per- 
suaded his Athenian secretary to accompany him 


and continue in the work of the Cretan Committee 
in New England. Pinding him well qualified to 
teach, Dr. Howe gave him the task of teaching 
Latin and Greek in the Perkins Institution to the 
^few blind pupils who in 1868 had pursued their 
studies that far ; and also made him private tutor 
of his family. A year or two later he promoted 
his tutor's wish to become Greek professor in some 
western American college, writing in a letter of 
recommendation, "He is capable of filling the post 
in any of our universities with honor." ^ 

Yet so had the young Greek won the affections 
of the Howe family that when the time for separa- 
tion had come Dr. Howe could not part with him, 
but placed him in a permanent position in the 
Perkins Institution, and late in 1870 gave him the 
hand of his daughter, Julia Romana. She, worthy 
scion of Samuel Gridley and Julia Ward Howe, 
was "a woman of ideally beautiful character and 
deeply interested in her father's work for the 
blind." For fifteen years they spent a happy, 
though childless life together, till she died in 1886. 
The last words of Mrs. Anagnos were: "Take 
care of the little blind children." 

After 1870, the increasing years and infirmity 
of the great founder of the Perkins Institution 

3 Prof. Mana/tt ("Memoir," p. 117), says, "Had Anagnos 
taken up the work of a Greek chair in this country and 
applied to it the same broad and inclusive view of education 
which he brought to bear on his problems at South Boston, 
I cannot but believe that Greek studies would fare bet- 
ter among us to-day." 


for the Blind made It necessary that Mr. Anagnos 
be placed more and more in general charge of 
affairs, and so he became intimately familiar with 
every part of the establishment and its methods 
and ideals. Thus when Dr. Howe died in 1876, 
he was the only candidate seriously considered as 
his successor, "although," says Mr. Sanborn, 
"there was some question in the minds of some 
trustees how a native of Turkey and a subject 
of the Kingdom of Greece would succeed in the 
whole management of a Bostonian institution so 
peculiarly dependent on the liberality of the good 
people of Massachusetts, and particularly of Bos- 
ton. The result of his administration (which 
lasted SO years) soon solved that question. Every 
branch of the administration had already begun 
to feel the youthful energy and mature wisdom 
of the new director." Writes the acting director 
in his report after Anagnos' death : 

"Trained by intimate relations with the great father 
of the work in this country, Dr. Howe, Mr. Anagnos 
saw clearly that the methods and principles used by 
Dr. Howe were in the main correct, and with that 
complete lack of conceit and entire absence of any 
sense of his own importance, as great as it was rare 
and as rare as it was beautiful, he set himself to the 
task of carrying out the great work his' predecessor 
had left uncompleted, and for three decades has la- 
bored faithfully and brought this great work to a 
state of efficiency that is known and admired on both 
sides of the Atlantic." 


One of his first acts was the promotion of a 
fund of $100000 for books for the bUnd, and the 
establishment of a printing department ; six years 
later every public library in Massachusetts had 
been furnished with these books. Seconded by his 
devoted wife, he founded the kindergarten in 
Jamaica Plain for little blind children under nine. 
This beautiful work is his especial monument. 
Soon another $100000 endowment was raised, and 
for many years he was weighed with the handling 
each year of over half a million dollars. He gave 
special attention and study to the perfection of 
the physical training department and to the train- 
ing of the blind in self-supporting trades and 

In none of the deeds of his life did that tender- 
ness of heart and sympathy for his fellow men 
that were ever the chief motive forces of his char- 
acter, appear more conspicuously than in his work 
for the deaf-blind — a work small in numbers, but 
in proportion to the completeness of the emanci- 
pation, tremendous in achievement. He had be- 
come familiar with the famous education by Dr. 
Howe of Laura Bridgman, Oliver Caswell and 
others, and in carrying on a like work he attracted 
the attention of the world in som^ respects even 
more than did the cases of his predecessor. The 
fame of his success in the cases of Helen Keller, 
Thomas Stringer, Elizabeth Robin, and others of 
the blind-deaf has gone round the world. I can- 
not refrain from retelling the story of one case 


(the others are equally miraculous) in the words 
of Mr. Sanborn: 

"About sixteen years ago in a hospital in the city 
of Pittsburgh a pitiful case was brought to light. A 
little boy^ deaf and blind^ was sent there for treat- 
ment. His parents were too poor to pay for his 
maintenance in any institution^ and a number of ap- 
peals were sent to institutions and individuals in his 
behalf^ but without avail. Finally the case was 
brought to the attention of Mr. Anagnos. In the 
helpless^ almost inanimate little lump of day that 
was brought to his doors^ he saw the likeness of a 
human soul^ and immediately took measures to bring 
about its development and unfolding. So the little 
stranger entered the Kindergarten for the Blind in 
1891; a special teacher was provided for him; and 
the education of Thomas Stringer had begun. The 
sightless^ voiceless^ seemingly hopeless little waif of 
1891 has now developed into the intelligent, sturdy, 
fine appearing young man of 1906, who, in his bene- 
factor's own words, 'is strong and hale, and who 
thinks acutely, reasons rationally, judges accurately, 
acts promptly, and works diligently. He loves truth 
and uprightness and loathes mendacity and deceitful- 
ness. He appears to be absolutely unselfish and is 
very grateful to his benefactors. His is a loyal and 
self-poised soul — affectionate, tender, and brave. He 
enjoys the tranquillity of innocence and the blessings 
of the pure in heart. He is honorable, faithful, 
straightforward, and trustworthy in all his relations. 
He is not only happy and contented with his environ- 
ment, but seems to dwell perpetually in the sunlight 


of entire confidence in the probity and kindness of his 
fellow men.* 

"The above is a just picture of the results thus far 
attained in the ease of Thomas Stringer^ and in the 
closing sentence, the writer unwittingly gave utterance 
to his own highest praise^ for if this deaf-blind boy 
'dwells continually in the sunlight of entire confidence 
in the probity and kindness of his fellow men/ it is 
because he has known naught but perfect probity and 
absolute kindness on the part of the man^ who^ amid 
the multifarious cares involved in the conduct of a 
great institution^ yet found time to take this stricken 
waif into his heart and love him! — who found time 
to be father, guardian, and friend! — ^and year after 
year, by voice and pen to plead his cause with a gen- 
erous public, and so provide for the child's future 
security when his guardian should have passed from 
the scene." 

Here is the testimony of one blind graduate, 
Lydia Y. Hayes, on learning of Anagnos' death: 

"... I have always wished for literary ability, 
but never so much as now, when I desire to express 
what Mr. Anagnos has been to one graduate of the 
school. Then multiply that by every life which his 
life has touched, and you have the result of his influ- 
ence in the world. His strength comforted our weak- 
ness, his firmness overcame our wavering ideas, his 
power smoothed away our obstacles, his noble unself- 
ishness put to shame our petty differences of opinion, 
and his untiring devotion led us to do our little as 
well as we could. . . . Better than all, he taught us 
to be men and women in our own hoipes and to the 
best of our ability." 


And here is how his subordinates regarded him 
(from the report of the acting director) : 

"The relation of Mr. Anagnos to his associates was 
in itself a beautiful thing. He asked for no comforts 
of living that his associates did not enjoy. He de- 
manded of his helpers no greater length of hours or 
hardships of service than he took upon himself. Each 
morning he met his teachers at chapel and gave every 
one a hearty greeting and a cheery smile that lighted 
up their path throughout the day. He would never 
have any praise for himself^ but how often in these 
pages and by spoken word has he shown his appre- 
ciation of their efforts^ and assigned them all the 
credit for the work done here. And this was genu- 
ine ! It rang true ! And his helpers for the most part 
did their best^ out of interest in their work and the 
loyalty that he inspired." 

One of the last reports of this great educator 
of the blind closes with the following words : 

"Encouraged by the achievements of the past^ we 
take up hopefully the duties of another year, firmly 
resolved to carry forward this beneficent enterprise 
until we reach the shining goal at which we aim, 
namely, the illumination by education of the mind and 
life of every child whose eyes are closed to the light 
of day. We are aware that the path of progress 
which we have chosen to pursue is full of difficulties; 
but let us keep our faces always towards the sunshine, 
and the shadows will fall behind us." 

Several times Anagnos visited Europe to travel 


about and study the institutions for the defective, 
and to visit his relatives in enslaved Greece and 
investigate the educational possibilities of its op- 
pressed compatriots. He was present in Paris in 
1900 at the International Congress of teachers 
and friends of the blind in the double capacity of 
representing his own institution and also conunis- 
sioned to represent the United States government. 
Though he finally became a citizen of his 
adopted country, yet, just as every other Greek 
settled in a foreign country, so Anagnos remained 
to the end intensely interested in the progress of 
his native land, and made various generous dona- 
tions to the cause of Greek education, and left a 
like bequest in his will. The epilogue of one dona- 
tion of $25000 deposited in the National Bank 
of Athens towards the support of schools in his 
native Papingo reads: 

"Having lived for many years in foreign countries^, 
neither in sorrow nor in happiness have I ever for- 
gotten my dear comitry, but have always, always en- 
couraged her in her progress and toward her happi- 
ness. My savings, earned after many years of hard 
work, I throw on her soil with great joy, in order 
that it may produce, as I hope, the very best flowers 
of Greek education and development, which means 
the civilization of this small comer of Epiros where I 
^^ first S2^w the light of day and into whose soul I Ivish 
to pour light." 

Moreover Anagnos did his utmost for the cause 
of his immigrant brethren in America. He moved 

^' ! 



freely among the Greeks of the Boston community, 
frequenting their restaurants and coffee houses, 
helping many a recent immigrant to get a foot- 
hold, contributing freely to the Greek Church in 
Boston and elsewhere, (^ciating as chief speaker 
at the celebration of the Greek Day of Independ- 
ence. At one time he was the president of the 
Boston community, and as we mentioned before, 
he was the founder and president of the National 
Union of Greeks in the United States, whidi -so- 
ciety, though defunct after his death, was the fore- 
runner of the present Pan-Hellenic Union. 

In 1906 Anagnos sailed for Europe, and after 
visiting Athens, of whose progress he wrote en- 
thusiastically, and being present at the Olympic 
games, he traveled leisurely through Turkey where 
he was saddened by the oppression of his people 
and his course was followed by Turkish spies. He 
proceeded through Servia and Roumania. There 
a disease of long standing returned upon him. He 
underwent an operation, and died under the sur- 
geons' hands at Turn Severin, a frontier town 
of Roumania, June ^9th, 1906. His body was 
taken to his natal village in Epiros and buried 

"Roses white and red, with lilies and pale im- 
mortelles, clustered lovingly yesterday around the 
portrait of Michael Anagnos as it stood', taper-lit, 
in the chancel of the Greek Church at the comer 
of Kneeland and Tyler Streets"; so writes the 
Boston Herald of July 16th, 1906. "Two hours 


were there given by the Greek colony of Boston 
to the memory of their revered compatriot, and 
for a considerable portion of that time his praises 
were spoken in the language which he loved so 
well. The interior of the church had been heavily 
draped for the occasion. The symbols of woe 
were almost forgotten in the presence of many 
floral offerings, which included wreaths from the 
Greek Union (Helleniki Kinotis) of which the de- 
ceased was president, the St. Peter's Club (Agius 
Petrius), the Ladies' Greek Society, and the 
Vassara Union." 

And the Lowell Evening Citizen of the same 

"Memorial services were held yesterday in the 
Greek church for the late Michael Anagnos^ president 
of the Greek Union in America, who died recently in 
Roumania. These services were held under the aus- 
pices of the local Greek community, and George Gou- 
zoules and Dr. Vrahnos, also an oflficer, delivered ad - 
dresses. Rev. Fr. Ambrosios Paraschakes conducted A 
the services, which were of an order very curious foT I 
our American eyes, but along customary Greek lines. I 
The priest stood in the middle of the church and all j 
the faithful stood around him in a circle, each bearing I 
a lighted taper. Upon a table at his right stood two / 
jars full of wheat, and surmounted with a large floral 
wreath. The choir stationed beyond the crowd at one 
end of the church chanted responses to the priest's 
singing of funeral hymns. At the conclusion of the 
service the wheat was distributed to those present to 


keep in commemoration of the deceased. The wreath 
which figured in the service will be sent to Mrs. Julia 
Ward Howe." 

The Boston Evening Herald of the same date 
printed a tribute to the great Greek in America 
by the k. T. T. Timayenis of Boston, part of which 
is the following: 

". . . He was the man who taught the Greeks in 
America to learn and adopt everything that is good in 
the American character^ the only man whom all Greeks 
revered and implicitly obeyed^ the man who did good 
for the sake of the good^ the man who conceived the 
idea of establishing a Greek school in Boston, the m an 
who expected every Greek^to^jdo his duty towa rd hi s 
adopted countiy^^^America. WTlost our teacher, we 
lost our guide, we lost our friend, the man on account 
of whom we all felt proud to be born Greeks. May 
his example live among my compatriots and may his 
teachings and life never be forgotten." 

The Boston papers all printed notices of Anag- 
nos in terms of unmeasured honor, as did the Greek 
papers of America and Greece; and countless 
letters of condolence and respect poured in from 
institutions and leading instructors of the blind 
all over America and Europe, and also from the 
devoted blind graduates of Perkins. The trustees 
closed their annual report with these words: 
"America has lost a true son by adoption, Greece 
a glorious son by birth, the sightless everywhere 
a father, and humanity a friend." 

On October 24th, 1906, in Tremont Temple, 


Boston, exercises in memory of the great Greek, 
were held before a most notable gathering. Gen- 
eral Francis Henry Appleton presided. The Rev. 
Paul Revere Frothingham opened with a prayer; 
the blind school orchestra played, a choir of blind 
girls sang a hymn ; Mrs. Julia Ward Howe read a 
poem ; and addresses were made by Governor Guild, 
Mayor Fitzgerald, Mr. Franklin B. Sanborn, Pro- 
fessor J. Irving Manatt, and Bishop Lawrence, 
and the benediction was given by the Greek priest 
of Boston, Fr. Nestor Souslides. Here are a few 
of the words spoken at this meeting: 

Mr. Sanborn: "I, who have seen many establish- 
ments directed by able chiefs^ at the head of many 
subordinates^ have never seen one where loyalty to 
the chief was more marked or longer continued. He 
held for a whole generation a place in which he was 
greatly trusted, in which he accomplished grand re- 
sults^ and in which he was true to every trust reposed 
in him . . . and he silently fulfilled the obligation 
where many Greeks and many Americans would have 
spoken in their own justification." 

Governor GuiI/D: "Whatever he did was done 
well. It was my high privilege to know him both of- 
ficially and as a personal friend, to visit and see him 
in his touching work among the little children, to note 
the kind word of cheer, the ever ready flow of kindly 
wit and humor, the encouragement, the almost divine 
patience with which the little hands were guided till 
those that sat in darkness gradually began to see at 
last a great mental light. . . . The name of Michael 
Anagnos belongs to Greece; the fame of him belongs 



to the United States; but his service belongs to hu- 
manity !" 

Professor Manatt: "The memory of Dr. Howe 
binds old Greece to young America: may the memory 
of Michael Anagnos be a strong bond of sympathy be- 
tween his sightless pupils here and his young com- 
patriots who sit in deeper darkness over there. . . • 
It was a unique career of this Greek among barbari- 
ans. Greeks have gone round the world and in every 
commercial center you will find great Greek mer- 
chants and bankers; now and then a Greek scholar 
like Sophocles at Harvard or a man of letters like 
Bikelas in France; but where, in the whole history of 
Greece, will you find another Greek who in a foreign 
land has achieved a career in the service of humanity 
comparable to the career of Anagnos in America? 
And what rarer reciprocity of service ever bound two 
lands together! While we recall ancient worthies, 
let us not forget this pair of Plutarch's men (Howe 
and Anagnos) who have dwelt among us in the 

Bishop Lawrence: "We in America are a little 
jealous, are we not, of the love and loyalty which some 
of those who come to us show toward their old home 
and nation? We want them to become fully, and 
completely, and suddenly, American. Are we right 
in this? Is it not the fact that a transplanted tree 
grows better when with it comes a great clod of its 
native earth to nourish and support it until its roots 
are thrust into the new soil? Is it not well that im- 
migrants sustain and nourish the memory of their old 
traditions and home associations, and was it not one 
of the finer features of Mr. Anagnos that while he 
gave himself to the work in this land, he so loved his 


native people that he, both in his life and death, gave 
an endowment and education to them and their chil- 
dren? We are richer for his continued association 
with his people and they are richer for the larger con- 
ception of life which he gave them. . . . Who would 
have thought that the young Greek, born in the val- 
leys of Epiros, educated in the literature of Greek 
and other languages, saturated with the philosophy 
of the university, would have become the sympathetic 
friend of the little blind children of Puritan Massa- 
chusetts, the head of a great New England educa- 
tional institution, and the man to plead successfully 
with Yankee legislators for aid in his work? It is 
interesting to us, for we are receiving from eastern 
Europe thousands upon thousands of people. We are 
wondering, sometimes with dread, what their influence 
will be in our American civilization. Granted that the 
mass of them have not in them the qualities of the 
Greek Anagnos, nevertheless the fact that he has lived 
here and done his work gives us hope and confidence 
that from these other thousands may arise those who 
will make noble contributions to our American life." 

The following poem is from the pen of the act- 
ing director, at the time of Anagnos' death, Mr. 
A. 0. Caswell: 

"Lift up your faces again, O sorrowing sons of old 

Bringing hither your burden of grief to Liberty's 

cradle — 
Bringing your tribute of praise and love to the son of 

Anagnos ! 


"We who speak in the tongue of Dickens and Milton 
and Shakespeare^ 

Vying with you who speak in the language of Plato 
and Homer, 

Offer our tribute to him who spake so bravely in both 

Lift up your faces again, and turn them once more 
to the morning! 

Leave the valley and shadow and face the glorious 
sunrise ! 

Grieve no more at his death; rejoice at the life of 

Through that life breathed the soul of Greece in the 
days of her glory! 

Back through the years let us look, and view his long 
life's valiant struggle. 

Back through the years see the child, trudging alone 
o'er the mountains. 

Suffering hunger and cold, freezing and starving the 

So that the soul might eat and drink at the table of 

See him with body all maimed and hacked by Turk- 
ish fanatic, 

For that his soul made her boast in that holiest cause, 
human freedom! 

Once again mark the brave youth his chosen profes- 
sion abandon 

After the study of years, heedless of promised ad- 

Scorning the taking of fees at the cost of his soul's 
prostitution ; 

And, daring with voice and with pen to stand for the 
right against tyrants. 


See him in prison inununed^ branded^ disgraced^ but 

undaunted ! 
And now on the ocean's broad waste^ follow the son 

of Anagnos— 
His own Athens left far behind^ making high place 

for another; 
Eyes for the sightless to be^ and ever their steadfast 

Learning an alien speech^ yet to be voice to the 

Patiently through the long years he wrought with 

earnest devotion. 
Structures lofty he reared; vastness of treasure he 

Wisely he managed affairs that nothing be wasted or 

squandered ; 
Little would have for himself^ much though of treas- 
ure he needed^ 
All the great plans of his heart to bring to successful 

fruition ; 
Frugally lived all his days so that the youth in his 

own land 
Easier might find the climb up the steep pathways of 


<«T : 

Lift up your faces again^ O sorrowing sons of old 

Hellas ! 
The soul of Anagnos still lives ! His life will go on 

through the ages! 
Follow the path he has blazed in all of your thinking 

and doing. 
So shall the glory of Greece again be your glory 







Se&aphim 6. Canoutas 

by cities by states 

Birmingham, Ensley 1^00 

Gadsden and Attalla ^0 

Mobile 400 

Montgomery 400 

Other places 1800 8500 

ARIZONA, scattered, 1000 


Little Rock 300 

Helena, Hot Springs, Pine 

BlufF, Texarkana, etc. . . 700 1000 


San Francisco and Oakland 5000 

Los Angeles 1000 

Sacramento 1000 

Other cities and R. R. lines 10000 17000 



(Thousands of R. R. laborers in 
- California and some in vine- 
yards and farms) 


Denver 600 

Pueblo 700 

Laborers in mines and R. R. 

lines 2000 3200 


Ansonia 300 

Bridgeport 300 

New Britain 200 

Norwich 200 

Stamford 200 

Other places 800 2200 


Wilmington 160 160 


Washington 700 700 


Tarpon Springs 2000 

Pensacola 600 

Other places 1600 4000 



Atlanta 900 

Savannah 500 

Augusta 200 

Brunswick 160 

Other places 1600 8460 


Scattered laborers 

(not steady) 8000 


Chicago 20000 

Moline 1000 

Other places 9000 80000 


Indianapolis 500 

Other places 2000 2500 


Des Moines 300 

Sioux City 500 

Other places 1700 2500 


Kansas City 300 

Independence 300 

Other places (mostly la- 
borers) 2000 2600 


KENTUCKY by cities by states 

Lexington 200 

Louisville 300 

Other places 1000 1600 


New Orleans 700 

Other places 800 1600 


Biddeford 600 

Lewiston 600 

Augusta and Waterville . . . 200 

Westbrook and Portland . . 200 

Other places 400 1800 


Baltimore 800 

Other places 700 1600 


Boston 8000 

Lowell 8000 

Lynn 2000 

Peabody 1000 

Springfield 600 

Ipswich 600 

HaverhiU 2000 

New Bedford 800 

Clinton 600 

Holyoke 600 



Worcester 900 

Fitchburg 600 

Brockton SOO 

Salem 600 

Other places 10000 SIOOO 


Detroit 1000 

Other places 8000 SOOO 


iMinneapolis 600 

St. Paul 400 

Other places 1000 SOOO 


Scattered 1000 


St. Louis 4000 

Kansas City 2000 

Other places 2000 8000 


Billings 200 

Butte 200 

Great Falls 400 

Other places (laborers) . . . 2000 2800 


NEBRASKA by citess by states 

Omaha and South Omaha . . 1000 

Other places 2000 8000 


Ely and McGill 1000 

Other places 600 1600 


Manchester 8600 

Nashua 2000 

Dover 600 

Other places 2000 8000 


Newark and Orange 1000 

Other places 1600 2600 


Scattered 1000 


New York City with Brook- 
lyn 20000 

Albany 400 

Buffalo 1000 

Schenectady 600 

Yonkers 800 

All other places 10000 82200 


NORTH CAROLINA by cities by states 

Scattered ■. . 2000 


Not steady 2000 


Cincinnati 500 

Cleveland 600 

Youngstown 600 

Akron 200 

Canton 800 

Toledo 800 

All other places 8000 10800 


Oklahoma City, etc 1000 1000 


Portland 2000 

All other places (laborers) 4000 6000 


Philadelphia 2600 

Pittsburg 4000 

Monessen 800 

Reading 600 

Other places 10000 17900 

t . 


RHODE ISLAND by cities by states 

Providence 600 

Pawtucket 400 

Other places 800 1300 


Scattered 2000 


Scattered 2000 


Memphis 600 

Knoxville 100 

Chattanooga 100 

Nashville 200 

Other places 200 1100 


Scattered 4000 


Salt Lake City 2000 

Other places (laborers) . . . 2000 4000 



Norfolk and Newport News 600 

Other places 1600 2000 



WASHINGTON by cities by states 

Seattle 1000 

Tacoma 1000 

Other places (laborers) . . 4000 6000 


Wheeling 500 

Other places 1600 2000 


Milwaukee 8000 

Sheboygan 600 

Other places 2000 6600 


ALASKA 800-600 


The five books and three magazine articles in 
Section III marked with * are written in easy, 
popular style, and are specially recommended for 
further light reading. Taken together, they will 
furnish a good historical background and a knowl- 
edge of the life in Greece so necessary for a real 
appreciation of the Greeks in America. Let- me 
also specially recommend the two short pamphlets 
and the "Report" in Section IV marked with *. 


FOE 1912, S. G. Canoutas (500 pages), in Greek 
except the Directory, but also valuable to those 
who do not read Greek for its pictures, and 
especially for the Directory in English, which 
gives by states and cities the street addresses 
of churches, professional and business men, 
etc., of the Greeks of the whole United States. 
Price, $1.00, from Geo. N. Helmis, 168 W. 
28rd Street, New York. 

Books in Modem Greek of all kinds, gram- 
matical, historical, ecclesiastical, fiction, pocket 
and other lexicons, histories of the United 

States, music, pictures, etc., etc., may be ob- 



tained from either of the two book stores in 
New York City, which will send their catalogs 
on request: "Atlas," 25 Madison Street; "At- 
lantis," 118-117 W. 81st Street. "Atlantis" 
publishes an excellent illustrated magazine 
monthly, in Greek (price per year $8.00). 
The Eastern and Western Review^ published 
monthly by T. T. Timayenis in English, 24 
Milk Street, Boston, Massachusetts, always 
contains something of value about the Greeks 
(price, $8.00). 

The addresses of the many other papers and 
periodicals of the Greeks in America may be 
found in Canoutas' "Guide." 

Note: We regret to feel obliged to give a 
caution about the only book on the Greeks in 
America except the present one, gbeek immi- 
gration TO THE UNITED STATES, by H. P. Fair- 
child, 1911. After painstaking consideration, 
with expert assistance, of this book and its refer- 
ences I must conclude that it lacks fairness, care 
and accuracy, except in the chapter "Emigra- 
tion," which originally appeared as a college 
thesis in pamphlet form. 


MODERN GREEK METHOD, by Rizo-Rangabe (Ginn 
& Company, 1896) is perhaps the most prac- 
tical method for studying modem Greek. 

MODERN GREEK, by Viuceut and Dickson (Mac- 
millan, 1904), is also an excellent method and 


contains a very valuable appendix of 64 pages 
by Sir R. C. Jebb, on the relation of Modem 
to Classical Greek. 

Grammars in Greek, lexicons and other study 
books may be obtained from the Greek book 



The following list has been carefully selected 
with the kind assistance of Professor J. Irving 
Manatt of Brown, former Consul at Athens, 
who furnished most of the descriptive notes. 
Most of these books have been referred to in 
the preparation of this book, and its compan- 
ion historical volume to be published later. 

Bikelas, Demetrios, seven essays on cheistian 
GBEECE, tr. by the Marquess of Bute (A. Gar- 
diner, London, 1890. $3.00). 

Comprehensive view from beginning of By- 
zantine Empire to present day from a Greek's 

Freeman, E. A., the great historian, several of 
the HiSTOEicAii ESSAYS, 3rd and 4fth Series 

Foord, E. A., the btzantinb empibe, the rear- 
guard of Europe. (Black, London, 1911.) 

Finlay, history of Greece, 146 b. C.-1864 a. d. 
(7 vols.) 

The classical English history of medieval 
and modem Greece. (The first two volumes 
have been published in "Everyman's Library.'') 


•Phillips, W. Alison, wae of gbeek independ- 
ence. (Scribners, New York, 1897.) 
A good short history. 
Howe, Dr. Samuel Gridley, an historical sketch 
OF the gbeek EEvoiiUTioN. (New York, 1828.) 
Valuable first-hand story of the holy struggle 
in which the author had a noble part. 
Sanborn, F. B., ufe of samuel g. howe. (Rob- 
erts Brothers.) 

First biography of Dr. Howe by his best 
Richards, Laura E., letters and journals of 
SAMUEL GRIDLEY HOWE (2 vols.). (Dana Es- 
tes & Company, Boston, 1906.) 
Sergeant, Lewis, Greece in the 19th century. 
(T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1897.) 

Best work on the subject from a Philhellenic 
Felton, C. C. (Pres. of Harvard), lectures on 

ancient AND modern GREECE. (BostOD, 1867.) 

*Tuckerman, Charles K., the greeks of to-day. 
(G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1872.) 
Still one of the best books on the subject. 
*Jebb, Sir R. C, modern Greece. ($1.75.) 

Excellent short sketch. 
MahafFy, rambles, and studies in Greece. 

One of the best books from a classical-mod- 
ern standpoint. 
Quinn, Rev. Don Daniel (Ph.D. University of 
Athens, a Roman Catholic priest), helladian 


VISTAS. (Yellow Springs, Ohio, 3rd ed., 1910, 


Most sympathetic study of the modem 

Greeks by one who knows them intimately. 
Tozer, Rev. H. F., the islands of the jsgean. 

(Oxford, 1890.) 
Bent, J. Theodore, the ctclades: ijfe among 

THE INSULAR GREEKS. (Longmans, London, 

•Manatt, J. Irving, the ijving greek ; article in 

American Review of Reviews^ 11:398. 
•Manatt, J. Irving, a caravan of the pelopon- 

NESE, Chautatiquan^ June, 1901. 
*Manatt, J. Irving, a cruise in the ^gean, Chau- 

tauqtian, April, 1901. 
Dragoumis, Mrs. Julia D., tales from a greek 

ISLAND. (Houghton, Boston, 1911.) 
•Horton, George, in argous. 

Fascinating little sketch of Greek life by an 

ex-consul at Athens, now consul-general at Sa- 

Horton, George, modern Athens. 

A slight but vivid sketch. 
Barrows, Samuel J., isles and shrines of Greece 

(Boston, 1898.) 
An excellent book by a warm friend of the 

AUinson, F. G. and A. C. E., greek lands and 

ijETTERS. (Houghton, 1907.) 

A charming book for the classical scholar. 


It aims to interpret Greek lands and literature 
and to steep the literature in local color. 
MONOGRAPH on the 100th anniversary of the birth 
of Samuel Gridley Howe. 


A volume with biography, memorial ad- 
dresses, etc. (Boston, 1907.) 

(These last two are obtainable from the Per- 
kins Institution for the Blind, South Boston.) 
•Demetrios, George, when i was a boy in Greece. 
(Lothrop, Lee & Shepherd Company, Boston, 

This was written by a sixteen-year-old Greek 
Boy in Boston, and is an interesting description 
of Greek life in Macedonia just before the out- 
break of the Balkan War. 

The following are selected from a descriptive 
book list published in 1912 by a committee 
of the American Branch of the Anglican 
and Eastern Orthodox Churches' Union (con- 
sisting of the Bishop Co-ad jutor of New 
Hampshire and the author). The complete 
list may be obtained from the young church- 

the American agents, and have agreed to import 
and keep in stock these books and will furnish 
them direct or through any bookseller. The 
complete list is also published in the last book 
of the following list. 



By the Rev. T. J. Lacey. New edition, 1912. 
Cloth, 60 cts ; by mail 66 cts ; paper, 26 cts ; by 
mail 30 cts. (Grorham, New York.) 

A brief account of Orthodox history and 
characteristics and of Orthodox immigrants in 
America. This is the book to introduce the 
subject and to lend to others. 
students' histoey of the gbeek chuech. By 
Rev. A. H. Hore. Price, $2.26 ; by mail $2.40. 

The best and most unbiased complete history 
from the Council of Nicea to the present day, 
including all parts of the Eastern Orthodox 
communion and also the non-Orthodox Eastern 
Churches, and the relations with the English 
Church; also a good introduction on doctrine 
and worship. 
mothee of ALii CHUBCHES. By Rcv. F. C. Cole. 
Price, $1.40 ; by mail $1.60. 

Vividly covers much ground in a sketchy, 
popular form. Might (but ought not) take the 
place of the solid history of Hore for general 


CHURCHES. By Margaret Dampier. [E. C. 
A.] Price, 40 cts.; by mail 46 cts. 

Contains outlines of the constitution of each 
of the four Patriarchates and eleven autono- 
mous Eastern Orthodox Churches. 


Translated by Isabel Hapgood. Price, $4.00; 
by mail $4.86. (Houghton Mifflin.) 



The one complete standard translation of all 
the most important services, arranged for ac- 
tual use of the Russian Church and invaluable 
for American readers. 


English by F. W. Groves Campbell, LL.D. 
Price, $1.00; by mail $1.10. 

The book to carry when attending an East- 
em Eucharist. It contains only the Divine 
Liturgy (Eucharist), with tables and private 
prayers and offices.* 


CHUECH. By Ignatius Moschake, sub-professor 
of Theology in the University of Athens and 
Professor in Education. Being the Shorter 
Edition of 1888. Cloth, 20 cts; by mail 23 

Used in the public schools in Greece. 


CHURCH. A paper by the Very Rev. Const. 
GalHnicos of the Greek Church in Manchester, 
England. [A. & E. O. C. U.] Price, 8 cts.; 
by mail 9 cts. 


* There has just been published a little manual which i 
believe is better than Campbell's, though I have not seen it 
yet: THE EUCHARIST IN THE EAST for the A. & E. 
O. C. U. (Mowbray, London). Also as a companion volume 
a translation of the beautiful MEDITATIONS ON THE 
DIVINE LITURGY by the famous Russian author, N. B. 


Rev. Henry F. Tozer. Published as a volume 
in "Epochs of Church History" series, edited by 
the late Bishop of London. Price, 60 cts. ; by 
mail 68 cts. 

For any extended reading on the subject, this 
little text book must be the introduction. 
RUSSIA AND EEUNioN. A Translation of Wilbois' 
L'Avenir de PEglise Russe, by the Rev. C. R. 
Davey Biggs. Together with Translations of 
Russian Official Documents on Reunion and 
English orders. [E. C. A.] Price $1.00; by 
mail $1.10. 

A wonderfully interesting and sympathetic 
discussion in the form of letters, depicting the 
inner life of the Russian Church and Church- 
men, all the more impressive because the author 
is a Roman Catholic. 


count of four popular Catechisms. By the 
Rev. H. T. F. Duckworth, Representative in 
Cyprus of the Eastern Church Association. [E. 
C. A.] Price, 60 cts. ; by mail 66 cts. 
A concise summary of doctrine. 


Greek and English. Price, 75 cts. ; by mail 80 




John Brownlie. Price of the first two, $1.40 


each ; by mail, $1.50 : of the third, 60 cents ; by 
mail, 65 cents. 

Translations, centos, and suggestions from 
that mine of sacred poetry contained in the 
Eastern service books. With valuable intro- 
ductions on the history, doctrine, worship, etc., 
of the Eastern Church.* 


EAST, AND OTHER SLAVS Report of the com- 
mission of the Missionary Department of New 
England, appointed to consider the work of 
cooperation with these churches, — The Rt. 
Rev. E. M. Parker (chairman). Rev. R. K. 
Smith, and Rev. Thomas Burgess (sec'y, Saco, 
Maine). Paper, 28 cents, post-paid. (For 
sale by the Young Churchman Company, Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin.) 

This was issued in May, 1913. 126 8vo. 
pages. It is a remarkable series of articles by 
special investigators, with full bibliographies 
and valuable tables ; designed to individualize, 
give the historical background, and also the 

*Dr. Neale's invaluable HYMNS OF THE EASTERN 
CHURCH is out of print THE ORTHODOX EAST- 
ERN CHURCH, by A. Fortesque, is full of information, 
but is written from an ultra-Papal standpoint. THE 
F. Adeney (International Theological Library), is full of 
information and strives to be fair, but contains too much 
Protestant bias. 


condition in America, of the SO different races 
or branches of races of immigrants in America 
from southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. 




Acholyte, 100. 

Agents, 45-46, see also Ia- 
bor and Steamship 
Alaska, 199, 934. 
Altar, 158. 

Anglican Communion: 
Greek's conception of, 114, 

size and organization, 191. 
work of American com- 
missions, 940, 944. 
see also Hill. 
benefited by Greeks, see 

connection with Greece, 
see Philhellenes, War 
flag respected, 89, 178. 
history, etc. studied by 

Greeks, 79-73, 77. 
ideals, 74^ 78, 189. 
baneful influence, 74, 75- 

78, 83, 110, 136, 169. 
duty to <jrreeks (practical 
hints), xii, 70fn, 198, 
137, 149, 159, 155-157, 
186^189, 999-993. 
Amusements, 99-93, 150-153, 

169, 174. 
Anagnos, Michael, 190, 903, 
connection with immi- 
grants, 917-990, 993. 
Ancestry of Greeks, 3, 6. 

Antidoron, 109. 
Archimandrite, 83fn. 
Assimilation, 169, 175, 187, 

Athletic clubs, 60, 174. 

Athens, 19, 139. 

Atlanta, 171. 

Athmtis, 67. 

Atlantis Illustrated Monthly, 

" Atlantis," publishers and 

book storey 70-79, 936. 
« Atlas," book store, 71, 936. 

Balkan war, see War. 

Balls, see Dances 

Ban^ 93. 

Baptism, 56^ 107, 157. 

Baths, 150. 

Beta Theta Pi founder, 900. 

Bible, 11, 76, 77, 190, 199. 

Birmingham, 171-174. 

Bishop, 57-58, 158, see also 

Blind, Anagnos work for, 

Books read by Greeks, 70- 

Book stores, ^7 0, 71. 
Foot blacks) 38-40, 135- 

Boston colony, 95, 96, 54, 61, 

T^6, 68, 76. 137.^, — 

Botassi, (jonsui-Ueneral, 84, 

Boys, 39, 40, 139, 135-137. 
Boy Scouts, 60fn. 
Bread, Eucharistic, 109. 




BudneM ability, 81, as; 35, 

as, 181, 181^ 187, 170. 

notable examples, SS, 85, 

87, 41, 160, 179. 

Byron, Lord, 8, 197fii, 906. 


architecture^ 55, 143, 157- 

Empire insufficient study 

0% 4, 5. 
GredE lexicon, 903. 
#M aiio CSnirdi music, 
C3mrch musical notation. 

Calendar, 87. 
California, 40, 61, 146. 
Canada, 16, 97, 56. 
Candles, 100, 109, 111, 197, 

Canon, liturgical, 96-07, 99. 
Canoutas, S. G., xii-xiii, 43, 

Canoutas' Gr^ek-Am^riecm 
CMde quoted, 48, 59, 
198-195, 164-168, 169- 
170, 173. 
Catechism, 11, 76, 949. 
Characteristics, see Greelcs. 
Chicago^ 193-137. 
CWldren, 74, 77, 110, 133, 

134, 146, 
Chios, 7, 199, 194, 195. 
Christmas, 94, 95. 
Chrismation, 107. 
buildings, 55, 196, 143-145, 

building interior, 157-160. 
calendar, 87, 93-95. 
music, 109-106. 
musical notation, 104-106. 
organization in America, 

53, 56-57. 
pictures see Eikons. 
property titles, 57. 

service books, 98fn, 99fn, 

100, 158, 949fii. 
services, 99-119. 
900 aieo Eastern Orthodox. 
Church, Greek, 000 Eastern 

Churdi of Greece^ 11-19. 
Cigarette manufacturers, 88- 

QtiieDship in Greece 9. 
Oergy, 56^58, 83-84, 107- 
bishop, need of, 57-^58. 
education, 11, 58, 8^ 114, 

173, 176. 
first sent, 5& 
how regarded by laity, 19, 

57-58, 89, 107-108. 
income, 140. 
lecturers of Pan-Hellenic 

Union, 66. 
number, 88. 
social standings 11. 
titles, 88fta. 
types, 140, 170, 171, 173, 

unauthorized, 58, 83. 
see also Deacons, Monk- 
priests, Russian. 
CoflFee houses, 3, 37, 196, 150, 
151, 169, 173, 176, 177. 
Colleges see Students. 
Colony, 52. 

best types of, 169-174. 
Coloveloni, A. 196. 
Colvocoresses, Admiral, 195. 
Colvocoresses, Captain, 194- 

Communion, Holy, 94, 101, 

109, see also Liturgy. 
Communities, 59-58. 

best types of 169-174. 
Coney Island, 41. 
Confectioners, 25, 34-36, 61, 

Confession, 94. 



Constantine, G,, 905. 
Constaiitine, King of Greece, 

Cooper Union, 900. 
Corimilas, Minister, 65, 84. 
Costa Rica, 191. 
Cotton merchants, 54fn. 
Creed, 101, 117. 
Crete, 10, 910. 
CriminaHty, 10, 198-lSO, 147, 

Cross, diving for, 178. 
Crucifix, 158. 
Currant industry in Greece, 

17, 18, 34. 
Czar of Russia, 53, 54fn. 

Dances, 36, 61, 99, 93, 97, 

Deacons, 80, lOlfn. 
Delaref, £. J., 199. 
Dentists, 80. 

Diplomatic service^ 13, 84. 
Disease, 43-44, 148. 

care of sick, 59, 60-61, 64, 
133, 134. 
Distribution of Greeks 

in America, 30, 51, 175, 

in the world, 19, 13. 
Divorce, 110. 
Dowry, 59. 

Easter, 96-97. 

Earthquake sufferers, 60, 66. 

Ecutem and Western Be- 

view, 70, 936. 
Eastern Orthodox Church: 
branches, 191. 
bibliography, 940-944. 
Catholic, not Roman, 113, 

distribution, 191, 199, 944- 

doctrines, 116, 117, 119, 

Eastern Church — confd. 

erroneous ideas concern- 
ing^ 113. 

historical importance, 4, 5, 
6, 7, 77, 115, 116. 

history, 113-199. 

organization, 118, 191, 199. 

rites and ceremonies, 93- 
119, see also special 

services in vernacular, 199. 

size, 113. 

see also, Anglican, Church, 
Clergy, Eikons, Lay- 
men, Missions, Ortho- 
doxy of Greeks, Protes- 
tant prosdytism, Ro- 
man propaganda. Re- 
ligion (personal). Re- 
ligious toleration, Rus- 
Education in Greece: 

before 1800, 3-7. 

1800-1837, 7, 8, 119. 

1837-1913, 9-19. 
Education in America: 

immigrants, 30, 40, 50, 71, 
79, 78, 139. 

in Greek history, 3. 

in religion, 76, 77, 78. 

non-immigrants, 91fn, 905- 

professional men, 73, 78- 

students, 80-89. 

see also Clergy, Scholars, 
Eikons, 70, 100, 106-107, 111, 

157, 159. 
Eikonastasis, 158, 159. 

causes, 17-94. 

sources, 15, 16fn-17fn, 18- 
19, 61-69. 
Employment agencies, see 

labor aiii^nts. 
Epiphany, 94, 177. 



Epiiotes, 910. 
Bpisoopa], 900 AngHcm. 
Epistle^ 100. 
Buchaiista Holy, 900 Lit- 

European Powers, 8» 0, 10. 

Pacttonal strife^ 900 Gredcs. 
Factory hands, 900 Mill 

Families, 73-7^ 900 aUo 

Greeks, family sacred 

duty. Women. 
Famous American-Greeks, 

66, 190u4M>7. 
Farmers, 19, 49, 147. 
Fasts, OS, 04. 
Festivals, OS-07, 177-170. 
F%lioqu0, 117. 
Financiers, 19-lS, S3. 
Fisheries, 41. 
Fiske, P., 106. 
Florida, early ctAoDj in, 

Florida, 900 Tarpon Sprinfiis. 
Florists, 25-96, 36, 61. 
Fruiters, 25-96, 34-36. 
Fruit industry benefited, 36. 
Funerals, 111-119, 918-910. 

Galveston, 54fn. 
Gambling, 44, 151, 159, 169. 
George, King of Greece, 0. 
George, Prince of Gireece, 

Girls, 75, 150. 
Good Friday, 04, 05-06, 197. 
Gospel Book, 06, 100, 100, 

Greece, Modem: 
business methods, 184. 
economic depressions, 17- 

enslaved, 11, 16-17fn, 18, 

10, 99-93, 09. 
population, 19. 

Greece Modem— oim^dL 

progress, 0. 

rural coaoditions, 19. . 

900 olfo Atiienfl^ History, 
Ghreek C^urdi, 900 Churdi of 
Greece^ Eastern Ortho- 
dox Qiurch. 
Gretkt modem laaguage^ % 
00, 77, 78, ^S04^ 936- 

abuse by Americans, 198, 
141, 147-140, 159, 169^ 
164, 186. 

beneficial to United 
States, .36, 37, 130, 139, 
m, 175, 187, 993. 

dannishness, 31, 160. 

disillusionment, 10-91, 45^ 
78, 70, 184. 

factional strife, 58, 64, 6^ 
194, 144, 170. 

family, sacred duty, 39, 
46^7, 133-134. 

historical pride, 3, 4, 6, 

non-immigrant class, 65, 
66, 905-907. 

number in America, 15, 51 

see also Ancestry, Amuse- 
ments, Business ability. 
Distribution, Education, 
Famous American- 
Greeks, Intellectual su- 
periority. Orthodoxy, 
Patriotism, P h i 1 a n- 
thropy. Political ideals. 
Religion (personal). 
Greek Students Association, 

HiU, Rev. J. H. 8, 104fn. 
History, Greek; 
4000 B. C— 330 A. D. 3, 4, 



History, Greek — e(mtfd, 
330-1453, 4r^. 
1453-1891, 6-7. 
1821-1913, 7-13. 
American's connection 

with, see Philhellenes, 

War orphans, 
bibliography) 937-945. 
ecclesiastical, 4-6, 113-191. 
importance of Imowledge 

of xii, 3, 4-6, 13, 185. 
mediaeval misunderstood. 

Holy Synod, 11, 57fn, 83. 
Holy Week, 95. 
Hotel employees, 40-41, 
Hotels, 37, 179. 
Housing conditions: 

boot black boys, 135-137. 

early inmiigrants, 2^^ 139. 

famiUes, 75, 134, 148, 150. 

great cities, 90, 134-.137. 

in Greece, 19, 90. 

landlords, 149, 147-149. 

miU towns, 149, 147-150. 

uncongested colonies, 173. 
Howe, Julia Ward, 190, 

194fn, 911 990, 991. 
Howe, Samuel Gridley, 8, 
190, 197fn, 199, 910-919, 

Hull House, 196, 139. 
Hymns, translations, 96, 97, 
99, 119, 943-944. 

Icon, see Eikon. 

Ideals, see, American, 

Immigration, general prob- 
lem, xi, xii, 186. 
books recommended, 

160fn, 186fn. 
criminality, 198, 199. 
school laws, 155-157. 
Immigration, Greek; 15-17. 
before 1889, 15, 95. 
1889-1891, 95-^. 

Immigration, Greek — conlfd. 
1891-1913, 99-31. 
higher class 78, 79. 
permanent migration, 189- 

table of statistics, 17fn. 
Importers, 34. 
Imports from Greece, 34. 
Independence Day, 87-99, 

Intellectual superiority: 
immigrants, 11, 40, 71-79, 
139, see also Profes- 
sional men. Students, 
non-immigrants, 91 fn, 905- 
907, see also Scholars. 
Ion, T. B., 65, 906. 

Kalopathakes, M., 905. 
Klephts, 6, 93. 

Labor agents, 97, 45-46, 49- 

50, 196, 131, 140, 166. 
Lamb, 93, 97. 
Lawyers, 73, 79. 
Laymen, 199. 
Lent, 93-94. 
Libraries, 70fn. 
Literature, see Books. 
Liturgy, ITie Divine, 98-109. 
LoweU, 138-160. 
Lumbermen, 44. 

Mainates, 151, 191. 
Maine woods, 98. 
Marriage, 74-75, 110, see 

also Weddings. 
Masons, Free, 196, 906, 910. 
Mass, see Liturgy. 
Mercantile houses, 19-13, 33. 
Mesolongfai, 8. 
Metropoutan of Athens, 11, 

Military organizations, 60, 

MiUer, L. M., 196-197. 
Miller, J. P., 196, 197fn. 



Mffl hands, 44-46, ISS-l^a 
MIU towns, 160. 
Miners, 44. 
Minneapdis, 16^170. 
Missfoiuuies, 900 Hill, and 

Protestant proselTtism. 
fiftissions, Ortiiodoz, 116, 199. 
Monasteries, 19, ITS, 901, 

Monk-priests, 83. 
Monroe^ President, 8. 
diurch, 100, 109-106. 
diurdi notation, 104-106. 
instrumental, OS, 103, 109, 

19^197, 179. 

Kational Anthem, 90-01. 
National Union of Greeks, 

Naturaliaation, 69, 195, 157, 

Naval officers, 194-196. 
New Orleans, 54f n. 
Newspapers, 10, 91, 67-70. 
New Yoik Colony, 95, 96, 35, 

36, 53, 54, 55, 60, 61-69, 

68, 76, 137. 

Occupations, 39-51. 
Orthodox Eastern Church, 

see Eastern Orthodox. 
Orthodoxy, of Greeks, 19, 

18, 53-4, 65, 77. 
Otho, King of, Greece, 9, 


Pan-Hellenic Union, 63-67, 

88, 89, 153. 
PanhellefUe, 67. 
Papamichalopoulos, C. 66, 
Parades, 174, 177, 188, see 

also Processions. 
Paranymph, 109. 
Paspatis, A. G., 199-193. 
Patriarch of Constantinople, 

11, 57, 118, 119, 191, 


Patriotism, S0,'1S9. 
beneficial to Hie United 

States, 187, 999. 
examples, 85, 87-09, 180. 
in history, ^ 7. 
of Anagnos, 910^ 917, 918. 
P€M9, 69, 146. 
Paupers, 10, 59, 76, 153. 
Peddlers, 95, 96, 134, 138, 

Perkins' Institution, 911-^(i, 

in Greece and Turkey, 11, 

19, 193. 
in the United States, 59, 

61, 64,^ 66, 76, 133. 
money sent to Greece 59, 

60, 66. 
of famous Gredcs, 196, 
900, 904^ 919-915. 
Philhdlenes, xiii, xiv, 8, 

Ph3rsiGians, 79, 80. 
Picnics, 99, 93. 
Pictures, S-4, 70, #ss aiso 

Political dubs, 69, 179. 
Political ideals, 9, 30, 68, 

130, 179-181. 
Popci Bishop of Rome, 113, 

Prayers, private, 76, 77. 
Preaching, 100, 158. 
Prejudice, xii, 10, 197-198, 

186, 187. 
Priests, see Clergy. 
Processions, 96, 197, 177- 

178, see also Parades. 
Professional men, 66, 78-84. 
Professors, 89, 905, 906, 911. 
Property, 37, 41, 150, 179, 

see also Church. 
Prosphora, see Antidoron. 
church buildings, 55. 
Greeks not, 19, 113. 
history, 119-199. 



Protestant — eanfd. 
proselytism, 19, 84, 122, 

154, 193, 205. see also 

Publishers, 72, 
Pulpit, 158. 

Railroad laborers, 43-44, 

130, 161-162. 
RaUi Brothers, 207. 
Reader, 100. 
Recreations, see Amuse- 

Red Cross Society, 67. 
Religion, personal, 12, 78, 

110, 160, 166. 
instruction, 70, 76-77, 100. 
practice, 77, 93-95, 107. 
relation to priest, 53, 56, 

Religious toleration, 122, 
Renaissance, 5. 
Reservists, 85. 
Restaurants, 26, 36-38. 
Revolution, see War of In- 
Riot, 162-164. 
Rites and ceremonies, 93- 

112, see also special 

Roman Catholic Church 
history, 4, 115-120. 
how regarded by Greeks, 

propaganda, 12, 122. 
Russian Church and the 

Greeks, 54, 121, 123, 167. 

Sailors, 16fn, 35fn, 54fn, 

Saints Days, 92, 94. 
Salt Lake City, 165-166. 
Sanitation, 134r-136, 147-150. 
Savannah, 171. 
Schism, of West and East, 


Scholars, great, 13, 66, 193, 

200-203, 211. 
in Greece, 8, 11, 12, 199. 
in Turkey, 18, 59, 193, 217. 
Greek in America, 64, 75- 

78, 157, 220. 
evenmg, 155-157, 174, 188. 
Massachusetts laws, 155- 

pubUc, 75, 132, 157, 174. 
Seattle, 166-168. 
Service, Sunday, 98-102. 
Sexual vice^ 10, 39-40, 43- 

44, 74, 130, 136. 
Shepherds, 12, 42. 
Sinadinos, 65. 
Sinaitic monastery, 121, 201, 

Slaughterhouse laborers, 44. 
Societies, 53, 58-63, 132, 133, 

Soldiers, 85, 132. 
Sophocles, Professor, 13, 

Southern States, 37, 169, 

South Omaha, 162-164. 
Sponge divers, 176. 
Steamship agents, 17-18, 21- 

Steamship ' transportation, 

St. Louis, 164-165. 
Strikes, 154. 
Students, 80-82. 
Sunday schools, 76, 77. 
Syrian, G., 195. 

Tarpon Springs, 176-179. 
Teachers, 77, 78, 140. 
Temperance, 141, 146-147, 

151, 152. 
Temptations, 39, 43, 79, 136. 
Theatres, 41. 

Theatricals, 152-153, 179. 
Thombull, John, 191. 



Tones, liturgical, 99. 
TranfliVaal, 18. 

army serrice* 94. 

constitation, 94. 

oppression, ft-7, 10, 19, 18, 
94, 199. 

University of Athens, 4, 9, 
40, 79, 909. 

Vineyard laborers, 4S. 
Vlastos, S. J., 67. 

Waiters, 40, 1S5. 
1891-98, of Independence, 
4, 7-9. 

famous orplians, 199-901. 
1897, TurUsIi, 143. 
1919-13, BaUom, 94, 60^ 

66, 85, 99. 
Washinffton, D. C 170-171. 
Water, blessed, 96, 177. 
Webster, Daniel, 8; 
Weddings, 91, 108-111. 
Western States, 43, 44, 146, 

Women, 47, 75, 131, 133, 

134, 146, 150. 
Women's societies, 60, 61, 


Zachos, J. C, 197-901. 
Zenos, A. C, 905-^06. 

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